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1429 – The English siege of Orleans ended after 6 months. It was a major turning point in the Hundred Years War for France, which England had been winning mostly. The young Joan of Arc was at the head of the army, and this was one of her first major wins against the English. The Siege ended just nine days after she and her troops arrived.

1767 – Princess Frederica Charlotte of Prussia is born in Germany. She was the only child of her parents, the future King Frederick William II and his first wife, Elisabeth Christine. She went on to marry Prince Frederick, Duke of York and Albany, son of George III of Great Britain. They had no children, but Frederica was said to be devoted to her dogs and monkeys, and said to have an amiable manner.

973 – Otto I, Holy Roman Emperor died at age 60, with a fever. Known as “Otto the Great” he was the first German to be crowned as Emperor of the Italians. His coronation took place in 962 in Rome, much like Charlemagne. He spent most of his reign fighting all over, trying to consolidate his power, and keep the Italians under control. He sought peace with the Byzantines, even marrying his son to the Byzantine Emperor’s daughter. Because of the patronage of him and his successors, there was actually a small cultural renaissance that took place in the worlds of architecture and art.

1682 – 20 year old Feodor III of Russia dies in Moscow. He had been Tsar for five years after the death of his father, Alexis I. He had been disabled since birth, but still was reform minded, even founding an academy of sciences in monasteries. He married twice, his first wife dying after childbirth, and the child dies a few days later. He died three months after his second wedding.

1718 – Mary of Modena died at age 59 in Paris, of reported breast cancer. She was famous for being the second wife of James II and VII, who would be deposed as King of England and Scotland in the Glorious Revolution. The Revolution came after Mary gave birth to a son, James Francis Edward Stuart, who after living in French exile, attempted to reclaim his father’s throne. Mary stayed in France, even when her son was expelled in 1713. She lived out her days in a convent, in poverty. She was regarded for her sweet nature though, by the friends she made in France.

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