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1291 – Several Scottish nobles recognize the authority of Edward I of England as King. However, the Scottish Wars would continue well into the reign of Edward’s successor.

1788 – Catherine Pavlovna of Russia is born Moscow. She is the fourth daughter of Paul I and Sophie Dorothea of Wurttemberg and younger sister to the future Alexander I. She was very close with her brother, and when a group sought to overthrown him, they looked at Catherine as an alternative monarch. In 1816, she married King William I of Wurttemberg and was widely loved for her charitable works there. She died after just three years of marriage.

1774 – King Louis XV of France and Navarre died of smallpox. He was 64, and had been king since age 5, at the death of his grandfather, Louis XIV. Louis has a mixed legacy. Some scholars and historians maintain he laid France on the path to stability, while others argue that he was an incompetent monarch more concerned with hunting and womanizing. He was also famous for his influential mistresses, namely Madame du Pompadour and Madame du Barry. Louis was succeeded by his grandson, the doomed Louis XVI.

1775 – A 23 year old Caroline Matilda of Great Britain died in Celle, Germany. She was the sister of George III of Great Britain and in 1766 she married Christian VII of Denmark at the ripe age of 15. In 1768, she gave birth to the future Frederick VI. But her marriage was unhappy, as Christian was mentally ill, and acted indifferent to his wife. In 1770, she most likely started an affair with Christian’s physician, Johann Struensee, who, it was rumored, fathered her second child, although Christian recognized the girl as his daughter. In 1772 though, Christian had enough apparently, and both Caroline and Struensee were arrested, and the marriage was dissolved. Her lover was executed and Caroline died suddenly of scarlet fever.

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