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1191 – Richard I of England married Berengaria of Navarre in Cyprus today. Richard was on his way to the Third Crusade. Berengaria would accompany him on the first part of the Crusade, but they would be separated eventually. She would never come to England or Aquitaine with Richard as his Queen.

1588 – During the French Wars of Religion, Henry III of France flees Paris as the Duke of Guise rides into the city and riots erupt against the recent concessions Henry gave to Protestants.

1689 – William III of England signs on to the League of Augsburg along with most Europe in opposition to the expansion plans of Louis XIV of France. In England it was called the Grand Alliance.

1743 – Maria Theresa of Austria is crowned as Queen of Bohemia. She was the eldest daughter of Holy Roman Emperor Charles VI, whose death and female heir led to the War of Austrian Succession. In 1741, she had been crowned as Queen of Hungary, and in 1745 her husband, Francis, was elected Holy Roman Emperor, but Maria Theresa did not take the role of consort, and acted as much as a ruler as Francis did, even later co-ruling with their sons.

1937 – King George VI and Queen Elizabeth were crowned at Westminster Abbey. The coronation was originally planned to be for George’s elder brother, Edward VIII. Edward had abdicated the previous December to marry his American lover, Wallis Simpson.

1496 – Gustav I of Sweden is born today in Uppland, Sweden. He rose to be one of the leaders of the War of Liberation against the Danish, and despite his low birth, he was elected King of Sweden in 1523. He has both the legacy as a tyrant, for his harsh dealings with revolts against him, and he has the legacy as the father of the nation of Sweden. His accession day is still a national holiday. He was both witty and sly, in addition to ruthless to his opponents.

1670 – In Dresden, Germany the future Augustus II of Poland and Lithuania is born. He was at first Elector of Saxony, where he earned the nickname “Augustus the Strong”. He converted from Lutheranism to Catholicism in order to be elected King of Poland and Lithuania in 1697. He was a great patron of the arts in Saxony, but his reign was not as successful in Poland, as he was unable to institute the reforms he wanted, and Poland became involved in the Great Northern War.

No major deaths.

Have a great day!