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1536 – Five men were executed for high treason. They were George Boleyn, Viscount Rochford, Sir Henry Norris, Sir Francis Weston, William Brereton, and Mark Smeaton. They had all been accused of adultery with Henry VIII’s second wife, Anne Boleyn. Adultery with the Queen was a treasonable offense and worse still, George Boleyn was her brother. Smeaton was the only one who confessed, and possibly did so under torture.

1590 – Anne of Denmark is crowned as Queen of Scotland. She was the young wife of James VI of Scotland. They would become King and Queen of England as well in 1603.

1808 – Emperor Napoleon I of Frances annexes the Italian Papal States.

1814 – The Constitution of Norway is signed by the Constituent Assembly and Danish Crown Prince Christian Frederick is declared King.

1443 – Edmund Plantagenet, Earl of Rutland is born to Richard, Duke of York and Cecily Neville in Rouen, France. Edmund was the younger brother of the future Edward IV and Richard III of England. Edmund was fighting on the side of his father at the Battle of Wakefield during the Wars of the Roses when he was captured. He was executed after the battle at age 17.

1886 – Alfonso XIII of Spain is born in Madrid. He was the son of Alfonso XII, and was born after the death of his father. He would rule by regent, his mother, until his 16th birthday. He married Victoria Eugenie of Battenberg of the British Royal family. In 1931 he would be deposed in favor of a dictator and live in Italian exile. In 1941, he formally abdicated in favor of his son, Juan, Count of Barcelona. The current King, Juan Carlos I is his grandson.

1891 – Princess Alexandra, Duchess of Fife was born in London. She was the daughter of Alexander Duff, Duke of Fife and Louise, Princess Royal, and thus a granddaughter of Edward VII. At one point, she was secretly engaged to Prince Christopher of Greece and Denmark but the engagement was called off. Instead she married Prince Arthur of Connaught, her first cousin once removed. She worked as a nurse during World War I, and spent time in South Africa when her husband was Governor General.

1926 – In not so dead royals, Dimitri Romanov, titular Prince of Russia and head of the Romanov house, is born in France. He is a great-great-grandson of Tsar Nicholas I. He is known for his charity work, and his work for preserving the Romanov traditions and family.

1971 – In not so dead royalty, Maxima, current Queen consort of the Netherlands was born today in Buenos Aires, Argentina. She is the first Dutch Queen consort since 1890.

1521 – Edward Stafford, Duke of Buckingham is executed for treason. He was accused and found guilty of plotting the death of Henry VIII. Stafford was a descendant of the Plantagenets and the nephew of Elizabeth Woodville, wife of Edward IV.

Have a great day!