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1151 – Eleanor, Duchess of Aquitaine, married Henry, Duke of Normandy. Eleanor’s marriage to French King Louis VII had recently been annulled. When Henry and Eleanor’s lands were combined, they ruled more of France than Eleanor’s ex-husband did. In 1154, Henry became King of England, and Eleanor then Queen. They would have eight children, which include, 3 sons who would be English kings (2 of which are among the most famous, Richard I and John I), and 2 daughters who would be Queen consorts of Castile and Sicily. While definitely a medieval power couple, the marriage would later be tumultuous, when Eleanor assisted their sons in a revolt against Henry, and was imprisoned for it.

1804 – the French Senate declares Napoleon Bonaparte, First Consul, Emperor of the French. The following year he would be crowned as King of Italy.

1797 – Frederick Augustus II of Saxony is born in Dresden. He was the grandson of Frederick Christian of Saxony and the son of Crown Prince Maximilian. He succeeded his uncle, Anton in 1836 as King. He gave into concessions after the Revolutions of 1848, but later went back on them. He was forced to flee after dissolving Parliament, but the uprisings were crushed. He later died suddenly after an accident horseback riding in 1854.

1868 – The future Nicholas II of Russia is born today in St. Petersburg. He was the eldest son of Emperor Alexander III and Empress Maria Feodrovna. He became Tsar in 1894 after his father’s death. He ruled through the Revolutions of 1905 but violently put that down along with other skirmishes. During his reign we also saw World War I, which Nicholas mismanaged. He was forced to abdicate in favor of a new government, and his family was forced into imprisoned. He was later killed in 1918 alongside his wife, four daughters, and son. He was related to several other monarchs in Europe, including the Danish, British, and distantly the German royals.

1829 – Maria Josepha Amalia of Saxony died in Spain at age 25 after a fever. She was German by birth, a daughter of Saxon Crown Prince Maximilian but married Ferdinand VII of Spain. She was only 15 when the married, but they were never able to have children.

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