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1445 – The First Battle of Olmedo takes place between the forces of John II of Castile and troops from Aragon and Navarre.

1499 – Spanish Infanta Catherine of Aragon is married by proxy to Arthur Tudor, Prince of Wales. They were 13 and 12. Two years later they would marry in person, but just months later Arthur died suddenly.

1536 – Anne Boleyn, second wife of Henry VIII and mother of future Elizabeth I of England, is executed within the Tower of London on charges of Treason, Adultery, and Incest. She was executed by a French executioner from Calais who used a sword, instead of an axe. She gave a heartfelt speech, but was careful not to accuse anyone of wrongdoing, probably to protect her daughter. Henry did not make arrangements for her burial, so she was put in an arrow chest and buried in the chapel within the Tower.

1568 – Elizabeth I ordered the arrest of Mary, Queen of Scots, who had fled to England after her defeat and abdication. Mary was suspected of being involved in the death of her second husband. Although there was some circumstantial evidence, nothing could be proved and Mary was never found guilty. Her fate hung in limbo for almost 20 years, until she was found guilty of plotting Elizabeth’s murder and overthrow.

1744 – Sophia Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz is born in Germany. In 1761, she married George III of the United Kingdom and Elector of Hanover. She and George would become King and Queen of Hanover in 1814. They had 13 children survive to adulthood, who include George IV and William IV of the United Kingdom, Ernest Augustus I of Hanover, and Prince Edward, Duke of Kent, father to Queen Victoria. She was said to be greatly troubled by her husbands illness and was his legal guardian for the last years of her life. Although, she did not visit him often, possibly because of violent outbursts. She was a great patron of music, including the works of Handel and even met a young Mozart.

1797 – Maria Isabel of Portugal is born as the daughter of John VI of Portugal and Carlota Joaquina of Spain. In 1816 she married her uncle, Ferdinand VII of Spain. She got pregnant twice within two years of the marriage, the first being stillborn, and the second being stillborn as well, but the second birth would claim Maria’s young life. She was just 21 years old.

1102 – Stephen II, Count of Blois dies at age 57 during the Second Battle of Ramla. He participated in the First Crusade and other small battles after. His most important contribution though is being the father Stephen I of England.

Have an awesome day!