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1200 – King John of England and Phillip II of France sign the Treaty of Le Goulet. The treaty settled their disputed over Normandy and Phillip recognized John as King, after the death of Richard I. It also included a marriage alliance between John’s niece, Blanche and Phillip’s son, Louis. However within two years, the Kings would be at war again. Phillip would take back most of John’s French lands, effectively ending the “Angevin Empire”.

1246 – Henry Raspe, a German Landgrave is elected King of the Germans in opposition to Conrad IV. Conrad had been king since 1237 but had been declared deposed by the Pope.

1455 – The First Battle of St. Albans took place today. It is considered to be one of the first battles of the Wars of the Roses. It was a victory for the Yorks against the Lancastrians and Henry VI. Henry was captured in battle and declared Richard, Duke of York, Constable of England and later he became Protector of the Realm. Richard would later claim the throne, but die before he could take it. His sons would go on to be Edward IV and Richard III.

1629 – King Christian IV of Denmark signed the Treaty of Lubeck which ended Danish involvement in the Thirty Years War. Christian gained some lost territory back, but he was forced to give up other lands in Saxony to Emperor Ferdinand II. The War itself would drag on for another 19 years.

1809 – The Battle of Aspern-Essling ends today. It was fought near Austria between French forces commanded by Napoleon I and Austrian forces under the Archduke Charles, brother to Emperor Francis II. It was a tactical victory for the Austrians who were able to push Napoleon’s lines back.

1770 – Princess Elizabeth of the United Kingdom is born in London as a younger daughter of King George III and Queen Charlotte. Like her sisters she lived a sheltered life until 1818, when she married Prince Frederick IV of Hesse-Homburg. She then permanently moved to Germany, where her spouse became Landgrave in 1820. It wasn’t a particularly happy marriage, but they were cordial to each other. The marriage also brought her husband an alliance with Britain, which was advantageous to him later.

1859 – Ferdinand II of the Two Sicilies died at age 49 in Naples. He had been wounded by a bayonet three years earlier in an attempted assassination, and that may have contributed to his death. He had been King since 1830 and was the son of Francis I and Maria Isabella of Spain. He went into a brief exile in 1848 after a liberal rebellion, but it was crushed and he was restored to full power the following year. It was not the only rebellion he violently put down during his reign. His son, Francis II would succeed him.

Have a good day!