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1085 – Alfonso IV of Castile and Leon successfully takes the city of Toledo in Spain back from the Moorish people.

1521 – Holy Roman Emperor Charles V issued the Edict of Worms, which declared Martin Luther an outlaw and a heretic. Luther had been promised safe passage home, but the Emperor had planned to arrest and punish him for heresy. However, the German Princes with whom the ideals of the Reformation was taking hold with, helped him by giving him shelter.

1659 – Richard Cromwell, son of Oliver Cromwell, resigned as Lord Protector of the Commonwealth of England, Scotland, and Ireland. Richard had only been in office since September but was unable to effectively mediate between the Army and Parliament. Richard would live in self-imposed exile on the continent for a while, before returning to England after the Restoration of the Monarchy.

1846 – Princess Helena is born in London as the fifth child of Queen Victoria and Prince Albert. After the death of her father, and marriage of her sister Louise, Helena acted as a secretary for her mother. In 1866, she married Prince Christian of Schleswig-Holstein. His family had been displaced when Germany took the territories from Denmark. It allowed Christian to live in Britain though, so Helena could stay with her mother, which was one of the Queen’s conditions for the marriage. The couple remained in England and Helena devoted herself to promoting nursing and women’s issues, despite her mother’s antagonism to the topic.

1555 – Henry II of Navarre died today at age 56. He had been king of Navarre since 1517 after the death of his exiled mother, Catherine of Navarre. The small country was undergoing disputes with Spain at the time and they would invade in 1525, and Henry was captured in battle. He was able to escape using a disguise. His wife would be the sister of Francis I France, Margaret of Angouleme, and his successor would be their son, John III.

1786 – Peter III of Portugal died today at age 68. He was a son of John V, but became King through his wife and niece, Maria I. They had married in 1760, when he was 42 and she was 25. They had six children that survived childhood. Peter was not involved in day to day politics but was a defender of the nobility to the point of scandal. Maria outlived him, and would be succeeded by their son, John VI.

Have an awesome day!