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Events:
1153 – Malcolm IV was crowned at Scone. He was about 12 years old and was succeeding his grandfather, David I. Malcolm sadly, died early at age 24. He has a mixed legacy, of having the qualities of being a great king, but others saying he neglected his duties as king.

1199 – John of England is crowned as King of England after the death of his brother, Richard I. However, he was not universally accepted as his brothers successor throughout the Angevin Empire. Some lands put forward Arthur of Brittany, son of John’s elder brother, Geoffrey. John and Arthur would fight for years over the inheritance, until Arthur was captured and probably killed by John’s orders, or by some accounts, John’s own hands.

1703 – Peter the Great of Russia laid bricks that founded the city of St. Petersburg. It was founded to be a port city, and has since been a major hub for Russia, even acting as its capital.

1883 – Alexander III and Maria Feodorovna were crowned and anointed as Emperor and Empress of Russia in Moscow. Alexander became Tsar after the death of his father, Alexander II, who’s policies he would undo. Later Alexander would be succeeded by his elder son, Nicholas II.

Birthdays:
1626 – William II, Prince of Orange and Stadtholder of the Netherlands was born today in The Hague. In 1641, he married the British Princess Royal, Mary, daughter of Charles I. He was only in his offices for three years before his early death from smallpox at age 24. His son was born just a week after his death, also named William, who would go on to be Stadtholder and King of England, as William III.

1756 – The future Maximilian I Joseph of Bavaria was born today. He was at first Elector of Bavaria, but assumed the title of King in 1806 after the Treaty of Pressburg. At first he was an ally of Napoleon, but later switches sides against him. He would later have multiple territorial disputes with Austria, but found time at home to give Bavaria a liberal constitution for the time. He would be succeeded by the eldest of his 13 children, Ludwig. His daughters would also marry into royal families, one becoming Queen of Saxony, another Queen of Prussia, and another, Empress of Austria.

No major deaths.

Have a good one!

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