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1503 – A papal bull is issued by Alexander VI married James IV of Scotland and Princess Margaret Tudor. Margaret was the daughter of Henry VII of England. The marriage also brings a peace treaty which lasts for about ten years.

1533 – The marriage of Anne Boleyn and Henry VIII is declared as valid by the Archbishop of Canterbury just days after Henry’s marriage to Katherine of Aragon was declared invalid.

1660 – The future George I of Great Britain is born on Osnabruck, Germany. He was a great-grandson of King James I through Elizabeth of Bohemia. He became Elector of Hanover in 1698, and then in 1714, after the death of Queen Anne, became King of Great Britain. He was put forth as Anne’s successor because of the 1701 Act of Settlement that prohibited Catholics from inheriting the throne. He retained his throne in Hanover as well, and died in 1727 while making a trip there.

1357 – Afonso IV of Portugal died in Lisbon at age 66. He had been king since 1325, when his father Denis died. He is partly known for court intrigues surrounding his son Peter, and his lover Ines, and his wars with Castile. However, he was also influential in setting up the Portuguese Navy.

1940 – Prince Frederick Charles of Hesse died in Kassel, Germany. He had married Margaret, this younger sister of Wilhelm II of Germany. In 1918 he was elected King of Finland, but renounced the throne just three months later, due to the political upheavals spreading through Europe.

1972 – Edward, Duke of Windsor died in Paris at age 77. For a brief period in 1936, he was known as His Majesty, Edward VIII of Great Britain and Emperor of India. The son of George V, became king at his death, but intended to marry an American, Wallis Simpson, who was divorced twice over. He would abdicate before the year was out, with his brother becoming George VI.

Have a good night!