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1411 – Charles VI of France grants a monopoly to the town of Roquefort-sur-Soulzon for what’s known as Roquefort cheese.

1802 – Charles Emmanuel IV of Sardinia abdicates the throne in favor of his brother, Victor Emmanuel. Charles was said to be crushed after the death of his wife, Marie Clotilde.

1913 – A British suffragette, Emily Davison is trampled by a horse when she ran out in front of King George V while at the Epsom Derby.

1394 – Phillippa of England is born as the daughter of the future Henry IV of England and Mary de Bohun. She was the younger sister of Henry V, of Hundred Years War fame. In 1406, she married Eric of Pomerania, King of Denmark, Norway, and Sweden. She was popular in her husbands lands, and was heavily involved in politics, even acting as regent during his time abroad. At age 35 she died suddenly.

1738 – The future George III of the United Kingdom is born in London. He was the eldest son of the Prince of Wales, Frederick and a grandson of George II. In 1751 became Prince of Wales after the death of his father, and in 1760, King of the United Kingdom, and Hanover. He is famous for being King during the American Revolution, which cost Britain its territory in what is now the USA. Later, he had recurring bouts of mental illness (believed to be porphyria) and his eldest son, the future George IV, served as regent. “Mad King George” spent the rest of his life in seclusion until his death in 1820.

1039 – Conrad II, Holy Roman Emperor, died of gout in Germany. He had been King of the Germans since 1024 and became Emperor in 1027. Like most Emperors of his time, he spent the majority of his reign at war with his neighbors over territories. He was the first of the Salian dynasty, which ruled Germany until 1125.

1134 – Magnus I of Sweden died during the Battle of Fotevik. He ruled only part of Sweden and was a claimant to the Danish throne. He was later called “Magnus the Strong”.

1206 – Adele of Champagne died in France while in her mid 60’s. In 1164 she married Louis VII, becoming his third wife. Adele would finally give Louis his male heir, the future Phillip II. Louis died in 1180, but Adele would spend time as regent why Phillip was on Crusade. She would also late found many abbeys throughout France.

1394 – Mary de Bohun, first wife of Henry Bolingbroke, died during the birth of a daughter, Phillippa of England. After her death, Mary’s husband would go on to be Henry IV of England, and her eldest son would be Henry V. Phillippa, the daughter she died giving birth to, went on to be Queen consort and regent of Denmark, Norway, and Sweden.

1941 – An 82 year old former German Emperor, Wilhelm II died in Dutch exile. He had been living in the Netherlands since his abdication in 1918, when the monarchy in Germany was abolished. He was the son of Emperor Frederick III and Victoria, Princess Royal of the United Kingdom. Through his mother he was the eldest grandchild of Queen Victoria. This also makes him the 1st cousin of British King George V, who was his contemporary during World War I. Upon hearing of his death, Hitler offered to bring the body of the last Kaiser back to Germany for a state funeral, but Wilhelm dictated as one of his last wishes that he only wanted to lay in a country with a monarchy. He is buried on the grounds of his home in the Netherlands.

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