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1849 – King Frederick VII of Denmark signs the First Constitution of Denmark effectively making the country a constitutional monarchy.

1341 – Edmund of Langley was born to Edward III and Phillippa of Hainault. One of their younger sons, he was later made 1st Duke of York. The Yorkist claimants to the throne of England are descended from him. He would spend time on military campaigns in both France and Castilian Spain. Edmund also fought on the side of Henry Bolingbroke when he invaded England and overthrew Richard II, becoming Henry IV.

1523 – A daughter is born to Francis I of France and Queen Claude, named Margaret. When she was 26 years old she was created Duchess of Berry in her own right. She had been betrothed early on to Holy Roman Emperor Charles V, but ultimately ended up marrying Emmanuel Philbert of Savoy, and two years later, they had their only child. She lived out her days in Italy, dying at age 51.

1771 – Prince Ernest Augustus was born in London to George III and Queen Charlotte. He spent his youth and formative years in Hanover, Germany (where his father was also King) at both University and military training. In 1794 he was injured at the Battle of Tourcoing and the left side of his face was permanently scarred, to the point that most portraits for the remainder of his life show him from the right side. In 1799, he was made Duke of Cumberland and entered politics. Finally, in 1837, after the death of his father and older brothers, he became King of Hanover. His niece, Victoria, became Queen of the United Kingdom, but Hanover observed Salic Law, barring her from the succession. He died in 1851 in Hanover, where he had become a very popular King.

1962 – In not so dead royalty, Princess Astrid of Belgium is born. She is the second child of King Albert II and Queen Paola. She is married to Prince Lorenz, an Austrian Archduke and descendant of the Habsburg family. They reside along with their five children.

2005 – Also in not so dead royalty, Irene Urdangarin y de Borbon is born in Barcelona. She is the daughter of Infanta Cristina of Spain, and is a granddaughter of King Juan Carlos I. She is eleventh in the line of succession.

1296 – Edmund Crouchback, Earl of Lancaster and Leicester died while on campaign in France. He was the son of Henry III, and a younger brother to Edward I. His nickname, Crouchback, comes from him being called ‘Crossback’, which refers to the tunic he wore emblazoned with a cross for his participation in the Ninth Crusade.

1316 – Louis X of France died at age 26, possibly of pneumonia. He was the eldest son of Phillip IV of France and Joan I of Navarre. He had only been King for 2 years. His daughter with his first wife would go on to be Joan II of Navarre, as Navarre did not recognized Salic law, like France did. His second wife was pregnant at his death, and gave birth to a son, called John I, who did not live long.

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