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1042 – Edward the Confessor succeeded Harthacnut as King of England. Edward was a younger son of Aethelred the Unready and of the House of Wessex. He had spent most of his youth in exile, hiding from the ruling Danes. He would go on to be King until his death in 1066, and remains one of the most famous figures in Pre-Norman England. Both the crown the monarch today is crowned with, and the chair they are crowned in, are named for him. A hundred years after his death he was canonized.

1191 – Richard I of England lands in Acre, marking the beginning of the Third Crusade.

2013 – Princess Madeleine of Sweden married Christopher O’Neill, an American business man, whom she met while living in New York.

No major birthdays.

1376 – Edward of Woodstock, Prince of Wales died at age 45 of an illness. He was the eldest son of Edward III and Queen Philippa. He had been created Duke of Cornwall as a boy, in the first creation of a Duke in England. Later, his father also invested him with Aquitaine. He was also the first Knight in the Order of the Garter, and a renowned military commander. Known as “The Black Prince” after his death, his son became Richard II after the death of the elder Edward in 1377.

1714 – The 83 year old Sophia of Hanover died in Germany. She was the daughter of the Elector of Palantine, Frederick V and Elizabeth Stuart, daughter of James I and VI of England and Scotland. This made her a cousin to Charles I and Charles II, and also James II and VII. What Sophia is most famous for though, is the fact that in 1701, she and her descendants were named as the successors to the throne of Great Britain, if the line of Queen Anne failed. She and her offspring were the most closely related Protestants, as Parliament passed a law saying Catholics could not inherit the crown. Sophia would die just a few weeks before Queen Anne though, so Sophia’s son became George I of the United Kingdom. All British monarchs since then are descended from her.

1795 – Louis Charles, the one time Dauphin of France died at age 10 of an infection. He was the only surviving son of the executed Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette. Known as Louis XVII to the Royalists during the Revolution, the boy had been held in captivity after his fathers arrest. When the Bourbon family was restored later, his uncle took the regnal name of Louis XVIII in honor of his nephew.

Have an awesome day!