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1462 – Vlad Dracul or Vlad the Impaler, attempts to assassinate Ottoman Emperor Mehmed II, and engaged and defeated his army. The Turks were defeated and driven back from Romania.

1497 – A group of Cornish rebels engaged an army loyal to Henry VII and is defeated at the Battle of Deptford Bridge.

1839 – The Edict of Toleration is issued in the Hawaiian Islands by King Kamehameha III, which guarantees freedom of religion to Roman Catholics.

1239 – Edward I of England is born at Westminster Palace. He was the son of Henry III and Eleanor of Provence, and was active at his father’s court, even fighting in the Second Barons War. In 1270, he left for the Holy Land, to participate in the Ninth Crusade. He was in Sicily in 1272, when he learned of his father’s death and his accession to the throne. He would take almost two years to get back to England though, and be crowned in 1274. Edward then became known for his reworking of the English law system, and later for his invasions of Scotland, which he would never fully see through. He became known by his nicknames too, namely “Longshanks” for his imposing height, and later as Malleus Scotorum, or the Hammer of the Scots. He was succeeded by his only surviving son, Edward II, in 1307.

1682 – The future Charles XII of Sweden was born to King Charles XI and Ulrika Eleonora of Denmark. In 1697, at the ripe age of 15, he ascended to the throne of Sweden, which was a vast country at the time. He was said to be a highly skilled politician, who introduced both legal and tax reforms, and had a highly effective Parliament for the time. But he spent the majority of his reign at war to both protect and expand his lands. He was also said to be in correspondence with Voltaire. In 1718, Charles was killed while trying to re-invade Norway. He was struck through the head with a projectile, and would be succeeded by his sister and her husband, Ulrika Eleonora and Frederick I.

1818 – In Stuttgart, Germany, Sophie of Wurttemberg is born as the daughter of King William I of Wurttemberg and Russian Grand Duchess Catherine Pavlovna. She married William, Prince of Orange in 1839, and in 1849 they became King and Queen of the Netherlands. The marriage was not happy, and they would spend most time apart.

1696 – In Warsaw, Poland, King John III Sobieski died at age 66. He had been elected King of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth in 1674. He was an able ruler, and his 20+ years on the throne offered much needed stability to the people of the Commonwealth. John is also famous for his defeat of the advancing Ottoman army in the Battle of Vienna in 1683. He still one of the most popular and well-loved rulers in Poland.

Have an awesome day!