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1269 – Louis IX of France issues a proclamation that declares all French Jews must wear a yellow badge identifying themselves or be fined.

1850 – Crown Prince Carl of Sweden and Norway was married in Stockholm to Princess Louise of the Netherlands. It was not a happy marriage, due to their incompatible personalities, and Carl’s numerous affairs.

1566 – James VI of Scotland is born at Edinburgh Castle as the only child to Mary, Queen of Scots, and her second husband, Henry Stuart, Lord Darnley. In 1567, his mother was forced to abdicate in his favor, making James king before his first birthday. He would rule under a series of regents until he was 16. However in 1603, James was named the successor of the childless Queen Elizabeth I of England, making him the first ruler of the entire island. He would rule Scotland for 57 years, the longest at the time. He had some difficulties with the English Parliament, and even plots against his life. Under James, the literary community in the Isles continued to flourish, as well as exploration in the new world. He died at age 58, to be succeeded by his son, Charles I.

1896 – Wallis, Duchess of Windsor was born today in the US, as Bessie Wallis Warfield. She would marry twice, and while living as Wallis Simpson in Britain, she met the Prince of Wales, and future king Edward VIII. Edward’s intention to marry her after his accession to the throne caused a constitutional crisis which led to his abdication in 1936, before his coronation. They married in France in 1937, and lived abroad for the rest of their lives as the Duke and Duchess of Windsor.

1282 – Eleanor de Montfort, Princess of Wales and Lady of Snowdon died giving birth to her only child. She was the daughter of Simon de Montfort, Earl of Leicester and Eleanor of England, and thus a granddaughter to King John I. in 1275, she was married to the Prince of Wales, Llywelyn ap Gruffudd, by proxy, and finally officially in 1278. She was only about 30 years old.

1584 – Francis, Duke of Anjou, died at age 29 of malaria. He was the youngest son of Henry II of France and Catherine de Medici, and thus the younger brother to three French kings, Francis II, Charles IX, and Henry III. Despite being Catholic, he was heavily involved in the Dutch wars, fighting on the side of the Huguenots. He was also the last suitor to Elizabeth I of England, and she was said to be quite fond of him, but the marriage never took place, due to the unpopularity of the match in England.

1787 – Princess Sophie Helene Beatrice, the youngest daughter of French King Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette, died just before her first birthday. She had been having convulsions for five or six days, and had been growing new teeth.

1867 – Maximilian I of Mexico is killed by a firing squad. He was an Austrian Archduke as the grandson of Emperor Francis II, and a younger brother of Franz Joseph I. He had spent time in the Austrian Navy, and was married to Charlotte of Belgium. In 1859, he was offered to Imperial Crown of Mexico, which he refused, then refused again in 1861. In 1863 he accepted the crown and lost is Austrian royal status. However, the Mexican monarchists were not in the majority and he was quickly overthrown and captured. He had tried to implement several liberal reforms, and wanted to help the people, but was short sighted in his affairs.

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