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1314 – The Battle of Bannockburn started in Scotland between the Scottish forces led by Robert the Bruce and the English forces under Edward II. The battle is considered part of the First War of Scottish Independence. The fighting would last two days, and be a decisive victory in favor of the Scots.

1532 – Francois I of France and Henry VIII of England sign a secret treaty to oppose Holy Roman Emperor Charles V.

1661 – The marriage contract between Charles II of England, Scotland, and Ireland and Catherine of Braganza is finalized.

1373 – Joan II of Naples is born in Dalmatia to Charles III and Margaret of Durazzo. She would become Queen of Naples in 1414 after the death of her elder brother. She married twice, but had no children. She ruled until 1435, when she died at age 61.

1456 – Margaret of Denmark is born as the daughter of Christian I and Dorothea of Brandenburg. At age 13, she was married to James III of Scotland in order to settle disputes. They would have three sons, which include the future James IV. She was said to be a popular Queen, more so than her husband. She died early though at age 30, and rumors of her being poisoned still persist.

1703 – Marie Leszczynska is born to Stanislaus I of Poland and Catherine Opalinska. In 1725, at the age of 22, she married the 15 year old Louis XV of France. She would have ten children, seven surviving childhood, all by 1738. After this Louis began to have several public affairs, with Madame de Pompadour being the most famous. She was not politically involved, but stayed at court and had ceremonial duties. Marie was also popular with the French people, who widely mourned her death in 1768.

1763 – Marie Josephe Rose Tascher de La Pagerie is born on the island Martinique to wealthy land owners. She came to France as a small child, and eventually married Alexandre de Beauharnais, with whom she had a son and a daughter. He died during the Revolution, but Rose emerged, when she finally met an up-and-comer in the Army, Napoleon Bonaparte, who preferred to call her Josephine. Napoleon married Josephine, and became his Empress consort when he was declared Emperor. However the marriage would be dissolved later, as it became obvious she could not have more children. She lived out her days in Paris, where she kept beautiful flower gardens and entertained guests. She died in 1814, and Napoleon was said to be inconsolable. Josephine has many illustrious descendants, which include the Royal houses of Sweden, Denmark, Belgium, Norway, and Luxembourg.

1894 – The future King Edward VIII of The United Kingdom is born in southern England. He is the eldest child of George V and Queen Mary. He was made Prince of Wales when he was 16 years old, and served in the military during the First World War, and spent time on the front lines. He was popular with the people and visited areas of low-income families in Britain. He was also a womanizer and seen as irresponsible by his parents. He succeeded to the throne in 1936, but he intended to marry Wallis Simpson, a divorced American. Before the year was out, he abdicated in favor of his brother, Albert. He was named the Duke of Windsor, and he and Wallis lived in exile until their deaths.

1222 – Constance of Aragon died in Italy, died of malaria while in her early 40’s. She had been married twice, the first in 1198, when she was married to Emeric of Hungary. She had a son with him the following year, who was crowned co-ruler at age 5 while his father was dying. Constance served as regent for her son, Ladislaus III, who died in 1205. She was married again in 1209, to Frederick III, and became Queen of Sicily and Germany. In 1220, she became Holy Roman Empress, but she would only be Empress for two years. Her son by Frederick would go on to be Henry VII of Germany.

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