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1314 – The Battle of Bannockburn concludes between the English and Scottish forces, with a rout in favor of the Scots. It would take England another 14 years to recognize Scottish Independence.

1340 – The Battle of Sluys took place as part of the Hundred Years War. It was a naval battle, and a decisive victory for the English, giving them control of the Channel.

1509 – Henry VIII of England and his first wife, Catherine of Aragon, are crowned at Westminster Abbey in London.

1314 – Philippa of Hainault is born in the Low Countries, to William I of Hainault and Joan of Valois. In 1326, she was betrothed to the future Edward III of England, in order to secure an alliance between her father and Edward’s mother, Isabella of France, who was planning an invasion of England. They married in early 1328, and her coronation took place in 1330. She would give birth to their first child, Edward, also in 1330, shortly before she turned 16. She was popular and well loved by the people, and known for her kind and compassionate nature. She acted as regent for Edward at times, while he was away on military campaigns. She passed away at age 55, outliving nine of her 14 children.

1343 – Joan of Valois is born in France, as the fifth child of John II of France and Bonne of Luxembourg. She would lose her mother to the plague when she was a young child. In 1352, she married Charles II of Navarre. She would have seven children with him. Her children include Charles III of Navarre, and Joanna of Navarre, second wife of Henry IV of England. She sadly died early in 1373, at age 30.

1535 – Joanna of Austria, Princess of Portugal is born in Madrid to Holy Roman Emperor Charles V and Isabella of Portugal. She was married to her first cousin twice over, Prince John Manuel of Portugal. They would have one child, born after John’s death, who went on to be Sebastian I of Portugal. She left Portugal and her son while he was still a baby, never to return or see him in person again. She lived out her days at the court of her brother, Phillip II of Spain, where she died at age 38.

1825 – Grand Duchess Alexandrova Nikolaevna is born in St. Petersburg to Russian Emperor Nicholas I and Empress Charlotte of Prussia. She was said to be beautiful with a great personality, and a talented musician. In 1844, she married to Prince Frederick William of Hesse, but she was already ill with tuberculosis, and then became pregnant shortly after. Her illness caused her to go into labor three months early, and neither her or the infant would survive. She was only 19 years old.

1860 – Mercedes of Orleans is born in Madrid as the daughter of the Duke of Montpensier, Antoine d’Orleans, and Spanish Infanta Luisa Fernanda. The niece of Queen Isabella II, she lived in Spain until the deposition of her aunt, but in 1878, after the restoration, she married her first cousin, now Alfonso XII. The marriage lasted only six months, which included a miscarried child, before Mercedes succumb to typhoid fever, just days after her 18th birthday.

1869 – The future Prince George of Greece and Denmark is born in Corfu, Greece. He was the second son of George I of Greece and Queen Olga Constantinova. He was active in the Greek military fighting against the Ottomans, and is known for once saving his cousin, the future Tsar Nicholas II, from an assassination attempt while visiting Japan. In 1907, he married Marie Bonaparte, from the non-imperial branch on the family. They had two children, Peter and Eugenie. They lived out their days in France and were married for over 50 years.

No major deaths.

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