1741 – Maria Theresa of Austria is crowned as Queen of Hungary. She was the daughter of Holy Roman Empress Charles VI, and is the only female ruler in all the Habsburg dynasty. Her accession caused the War of Austrian Succession, and her husband would be elected Holy Roman Emperor in 1745, although all the power laid with Maria Theresa.
1242 – Eleanor of Provence, mentioned below, gave birth to a daughter named Beatrice, in Bordeaux, France. She was married to John II, Duke of Brittany, although he did not become Duke until after she died, so Beatrice was never known as the Duchess of Brittany. John was also the Earl of Richmond. The two titles would be split between Beatrice and John’s eldest sons, Arthur II, Duke of Brittany, and John of Brittany, Earl of Richmond. Beatrice died in 1275, while in London.
1755 – Princess Wilhelmina Louisa of Hesse-Darmstadt is born in Brandenburg, Germany to the Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt. In 1773, she was married to the future Paul I of Russia, son of Catherine the Great. The marriage was not happy, and Natalia Alexeievna, as she became known after her marriage, was probably having an affair. She became pregnant and the paternity was disputed, but it didn’t seem to matter to the Empress. However, the Princess died giving birth to a still born baby. She was only twenty years old.
1291 – Eleanor of Provence died in England. This date is disputed, as she may have died the 24th. She was from Aix-en-Provence, and was the daughter of Ramon Berenguer IV, Count of Provence, and his Countess, Beatrice of Savoy. In early 1236, when she was only approximately 12 years old, she was sent to England, where she was married to Henry III of England. They had five children, the eldest being the future Edward I of England. While she and Henry were seemingly devoted to each other, she was unpopular with the people, for promoting her foreign relatives, and was even attacked while sailing down the Thames on her barge. She outlived Henry, and eventually went to live in a convent, although she kept in touch with her children, especially Edward.
1533 – Mary Tudor, Queen of France and Duchess of Suffolk, died in England at age 37. She was the youngest child of Henry VII of England and Elizabeth of York, and sister Henry VIII. In late 1514, she was married to Louis XII of France against her will. The marriage only lasted for three months when Louis suddenly died. Henry sent his friend, Charles Brandon, Duke of Suffolk, whom the Princess married in secret. After they paid a fine, they were allowed at court and returned to royal favor. Mary and Charles had children, and through their daughter, Frances, Mary was the grandmother of the ill-fated Jane Grey, the Nine Days Queen of England.
Have a great day!