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1743 – The Battle of Dettingen took place in Bavaria, Germany, as part of the War of Austrian Succession. The battle was fought between the French, and the “Pragmatic Army” which consisted of the Austrians, Hanoverians, and the British, led by King George II himself. It would be the last time a British monarch personally led troops in battle. They were called the Pragmatic Army because they were fighting to uphold the Pragmatic Sanction of 1713, which outlined that Maria Theresa of Austria would succeed her father. The battle would be a win in favor of the Pragmatic forces.

1462 – The future Louis XII if born the Orleans branch of the royal Valois family. He succeeded his cousin, Charles VIII in 1498. He was married a total of three times, First to Joan of France, his cousin, whom he was able to get an annulment from after his accession. The case behind the annulment was far from solid, and was granted by Pope Alexander VI, for political reasons. He married again to Anne, Duchess of Brittany, who was his predecessors widow. The marriage produce 2 daughters, Claude, who became Queen consort as the wife of Francis I, and Renee, who became Duchess of Ferrara. Louis married again after the death of Anne, to Princess Mary Tudor, the younger sister of Henry VIII, in 1514. The marriage would be extremely short, due to Louis’ death in 1515.

1550 – Charles IX of France is born to Henry II and Catherine de Medici. Because he was a younger son, he was Duke of Orleans from birth. He succeeded his brother, Francis II, when he was just ten years old, with his mother as regent. His reign was dominated with the bloody French Wars of Religion, and late in his reign he witnessed the horror of the St. Bartholomew’s Day Massacre. In 1574, he became fiercely ill with tuberculosis, from which he died that year when he was 23. His younger brother, Henry succeeded him as Henry III.

1458 – Alfonso I of Aragon died in Naples, Italy. He was King of Aragon, Valencia, Majorca, Sicily, Sardinia and Corsica from 1416 and King of Naples from 1442 until his death. He was married to Maria of Castile after his accession, but they had no children. His illegitimate son, Ferdinand, succeeded him in Naples, and his brother John, succeeded him in his Spanish lands.

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