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Events:
1461 – Edward IV of England is crowned as king at Westminster Abbey. He was the Duke of York, and had successfully taken the throne from his cousin, Henry VI, during what is called the Wars of the Roses. He would rule until 1470 when Henry took the throne back from Edward until 1471, when the Yorkists took it back once again.

1519 – Charles I of Spain was elected to succeed his grandfather as Holy Roman Emperor, becoming known as Charles V. He was 19 years old. Between his succession as Emperor, and inheriting the Habsburg lands of father, and the Trastamara lands of his mother, Charles ruled an intimidatingly large portion of Europe. He ruled Spain until 1555, when he abdicated in favor of his son, Phillip II, and then abdicated as Emperor in 1556, in favor of his brother, Ferdinand. However Ferdinand would not be confirmed for another 2 years.

1709 – The Battle of Poltava takes place in modern day Ukraine. It was part of the Great Northern War, and fought between the Swedish forces of Charles XII and the Russian forces led by Peter I, or Peter the Great. The fight was a decisive victory for the Russians, and we saw the decline of Swedish as a European power.

1838 – The 19 year old Victoria was crowned as Queen of Great Britain. She went on to have the longest reign of any British Monarch and became an icon.

1914 – Austrian Archduke and heir to the Austro-Hungarian Imperial throne, Franz Ferdinand, was shot and killed, alongside his wife, Sophie, in Sarajevo, Serbia. Franz was the nephew of Emperor Franz Joseph I and was not expected to succeed until 1889, when he cousin, Crown Prince Rudolf committed suicide, and then his father renounced his place in the line. This was the spark that set off World War I, though fueled by several other issues.

1921 – The Vidovdan Constitution is proclaimed as the first constitution of the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes by King Alexander I.

Birthdays:
1491 – The future Henry VIII is born at Greenwich Palace to King Henry VII and Elizabeth of York. He was a second son, and not initially set to be king, but with the sudden death of his elder brother, Arthur, in 1502, Henry was thrust forward. He succeeded his father in 1509, just before he turned 18. He would then marry his first wife, Catherine of Aragon, the widow of his brother. They had one daughter to survive, Mary, who later became the first undisputed Queen regnant of England. Henry would then be married five more times after he had his marriage to Catherine was annulled. Anne Boleyn was next, with whom he had a daughter, later Elizabeth I. Anne was executed in 1536 and shortly after he married Jane Seymour, with whom he had the future Edward VI. Jane died shortly after the birth of their child. The German Anne of Cleves was next; their marriage was also annulled. Then Catherine Howard, who was also executed, the finally, Catherine Parr, who outlived Henry. He was also responsible for the separation of England from the Roman Catholic Church, and is one of the founder of the English Navy. Henry was also known to be very intelligent, despite his later behavior, and was an accomplished composer.

No additional major deaths.

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