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1644 – The Battle of Cropredy Bridge takes place between the Royalist forces led by King Charles I and the forces of the Parliamentarians. It was a victory in favor of the Royalists, and one of the few.

1136 – Petronilla of Aragon is born in Spain to Ramiro II of Aragon and his wife, Agnes of Aquitaine. She became Queen when just one year old at the abdication of her father. She was also married when a baby, but did not consummate the marriage until she was 15. They had five children, and in 1164, after her husband’s death, she abdicated in favor of her eldest son, Alfonso, who was just seven. She lived out her days in Barcelona until her death in 1173 at age 37.

1398 – John II of Aragon is born to Ferdinand I and Queen Eleanor. He married Blanche I of Navarre in 1425, and was this king by marriage. In 1458 he succeeded to the throne of Aragon. He would later fight his son by Blanche for the Navarrese crown. His daughter later became Queen as Eleanor I. He lived until 1479 when he died at age 81. His son by his second marriage, Ferdinand became ruler of Aragon, and with his wife, Isabella, the united Spain.

1482 – A daughter is born to Isabella of Aragon and Ferdinand of Castile. Maria of Aragon, was actually a twin, but the other girl was stillborn. She was the sisters of Catherine of Aragon, and Juana of Castile. In 1500, she married Manuel of Portugal, who was married to her sister Isabella, until Isabella’s death in 1498. They had eight children to survive into adulthood. Her eldest son went on to be John III of Portugal, and her daughter Isabella, was Holy Roman Empress as the wife of Charles V. She died in 1517 at age 34.

1844 – King Peter I of Serbia is born in Belgrade. He spent much of his youth in exile, in Romania and Geneva. After a coup d’état, he was offered the crown of Serbia in 1903. He was a hands off ruler, especially during World War I, But after the war, the name of the kingdom was changed to the Kingdom of the Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes. This made him the last king of Serbia and the first king of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes. His son succeeded him as Alexander I.

1911 – Prince Bernhard of Lippe-Biesterfeld was born in Germany. He met Princess Juliana of the Netherlands in 1936, and they married in 1937. He was the father of the future Queen Beatrix. He fought alongside the Dutch during World War II, and when the Nazis invaded the Netherlands, he did not want to leave in exile with his wife and daughters. He would work closely with the British and fly planes with the RAF. He became Prince Consort in 1948 when Juliana became Queen. His post war years were unfortunately marred with scandal.

1509 – Lady Margaret Beaufort, Countess of Richmond and Derby died in London. She outlived her son, Henry VII of England by just two months. She was a descendant of Edward III, through his son, John of Gaunt and his legitimized children. When she was 12, she was married to Edmund Tudor, Earl of Richmond, who was a half brother to King Henry VI. She became pregnant, and while very pregnant, Edmund was killed. The birth was very difficult, but mother and baby survived. Despite further marriages, the baby, Henry, would be her only child. While her son was abroad in France, for his protection, she arranged his future marriage to Elizabeth of York, once he successfully claimed the crown, which he did, in 1485. She was devoted and protective of her son, and was a major influence on him, even after he was king. She was known to be extremely pious, and endowed and created schools.

1875 – Ferdinand I of Austria died in Prague at age 82. He was the son of Francis II, Holy Roman Emperor and Maria Theresa of the Two Sicilies. He was burdened with mental illness and several disorders. He was severely epileptic, and had five seizures trying to consummate his marriage to Maria Anna of Sardinia. In 1848, the people revolted, and Ferdinand would abdicate in favor of his cousin Franz Joseph I, who ruled the Austrian Empire for 68 years. He lived out his days in the Bohemian lands where he was popular and the people were sympathetic.

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