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1871 – Rome was declared the capital of a newly unified Italy, with Victor Emmanuel II of Sardinia as its King. He is referred to as “Padre Della Patria” or “Father of the Homeland”.

1959 – The future King Albert II and Queen Paola of the Belgians are married in Brussels. They are the current King and Queen of Belgium.

1363 – Maria of Sicily is born as the daughter to Frederick III and Constance of Aragon. She ruled from 1377 on, with her husband Martin, as her co-ruler. She was kidnapped for a time in 1379, while she was fighting for her inheritance. She ruled until 1401, when she died at age 37. Her husband would continue to rule after her death.

1849 – Maria Theresa of Austria-Este is born in Austria. She was the daughter of Archduke Ferdinand and Arduchess Elisabeth. In 1868, she married Ludwig III of Bavaria, who became the last king of Bavaria in 1913, making her its last Queen consort until 1918. She only lived a year after her husbands abdication, and died in 1919. Through her uncle, Francis V, Duke of Modena, she was the Jacobite claimant to the British throne, but she never acknowledged or pressed her claim.

1903 – The future King Olav V of Norway is born in England to Prince Carl of Denmark, (later King Haakon VII) and Princess Maud of the United Kingdom, daughter of Edward VII. He was christened as Alexander Edward Christian Frederik, but upon his father’s accession in 1905, his name was changed to Olav. He married Princess Martha in 1929, and had three children, which include the current King Harald V. As Crown Prince, he was also a Gold Medal Olympian in Sailing. He became king in 1957, and was so popular, he frequently went out without bodyguards and security, stating that he had 4 million bodyguards. He remained in good favor with the people until his death in 1991.

1932 – King Manuel II of Portugal died in British exile. He was the last king of Portugal and was overthrown in 1910. He had only been king since 1908, when his father, Carlos I, died. His reign was very turbulent, but even after his forced exile, he was supportive of the republican government, and even met with leaders during the Great War, while living in Britain. Monarchists tried to reclaim the throne, and he was supportive at first, but none would be successful.

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