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987 – Hugh Capet is crowned as the King of France beginning the Capetian dynasty. His descendants would rule France continuously until the Revolution of 1792.

1035 – William the Bastard becomes Duke of Normandy, which he would hold until his death in 1087. He became known as William the Conqueror after 1066, when he successfully invaded England.

1996 – The Stone of Scone is returned to Scotland after being in English possession since the reign of Edward I.

1423 – The future Louis XI of France is born to Charles VII and Marie of Anjou. He rose up against his father during his time as Dauphin, but the rebellion was unsuccessful. He would become King in 1461 when his father died. During his reign the Hundred Years War officially ended with the Treaty of Picquigny, and most of Burgundy would be absorbed into France.

1746 -Sophia Magdalena of Denmark is born in Copenhagen. She was the eldest child of Frederick V and Louisa of Great Britain. In 1766, she was married to the future Gustav III of Sweden, and they became King and Queen in 1771. They would have two children, but not until 1778 and after, and their non-consummation of the marriage caused quite a scandal, leading to rumors that the children were fathered by someone else.

1642 – Marie de Medici died in Cologne at age 67. She was Queen of France and Navarre as the second wife of Henry IV. They married in 1600, but she was not crowned until 1610, the day before her husband was assassinated. She would serve as regent for her son, Louis XIII. Her daughter, Elisabeth would become Queen of Spain, and her daughter Henrietta Maria would be Queen of England and Scotland. She was constantly involved in court intrigues and was said to be scheming against her enemies until her death.