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1187 – The Battle of Hattin takes place between the Christian forces of Jerusalem and the Muslim forces loyal to Saladin. It was a decisive victory for the Muslims and would be one of the events leading to the Third Crusade.

1534 – Christian III of Norway and Denmark is elected as King. He was a fervent Protestant and his election helped spread the Reformation in Continental Europe.

1569 – The Union of Lubin is signed by Sigismund II Augustus, King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania. The treaty merged the two countries into the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth.

1914 – The funeral of Austrian Archduke Franz Ferdinand and his wife, Sophie took place. They were shot six days prior in Sarajevo and the even would help spark World War I.

1799 – The future Oscar I of Sweden is born in Paris, France. In 1810 his father, Jean-Baptiste Bernadotte was elected to succeed Charles XIII. He succeeded his father in 1844, and ruled until 1859. Before his accession, he married Josephine of Leuchtenberg, daughter of Eugene de Beauharnais, and granddaughter of Josephine de Beauharnais. He was very liberal in his youth, but settled down after his accession. But under him, Norway was given more equality, and early freedom of the press laws and gender equality laws.

1937 – In not so dead royalty, Queen Sonja of Norway is born in Oslo. In 1968, she married Crown Prince Harald of Norway, and in 1991, they became King and Queen of Norway. Her son, Haakon, is the current Crown Prince and future ruler of Norway.

1942 – Prince Michael of Kent is born in England to Prince George and Princess Marina. He is a grandson of King George V, and thus a first cousin to Queen Elizabeth. Through his mother, he is also a first cousin to Prince Phillip. He undertakes royal duties on his cousin’s behalf although he lost is place in the line of succession in 1978, when he married a Roman Catholic.

2011 – Otto von Habsburg died in Germany at age 98. He was the last Crown Prince of Austria, as the son of Charles I of Austria and Zita of Bourbon-Parma. He fled Europe during World War II but returned to the continent after the war, never living in Austria again. He was a member of the European Parliament and a strong supporter of the European Union. His father never abdicated, and by his family and supporters he was still considered to be Emperor of the Austro-Hungarian Empire.