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1295 – John Balliol, King of Scots and Phillip IV of France signed a treaty against Edward I of England. Called the “Auld Alliance” this friendship would go on for another 400 years with the two countries helping each other militarily. In 1942, Charles De Gaulle would call it the ‘oldest alliance in the world.’ The treaty has never been revoked and is technically still active today.

1321 – A daughter is born to king Edward II and his Queen Isabella of France. She would be named Joan, and called “Joan of the Tower” because she was born within the confines of the Tower of London while he mother was residing for protection. While a child, she was married to David II of Scotland. They would be married be for over thirty years, but have no children. Joan would pass away in 1362 at just age 41.

1554 – Elisabeth of Austria is born in Vienna to Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian II and Empress Maria. In 1570, she married Charles IX of France. She was not involved in affairs of state, and Charles spent more time with his mistress, although he was not unkind to his wife. She devoted her time to her household of ladies and charitable works. Charles died shortly after the birth of their daughter. She lived out her days in her native Austria, and did not see her daughter after age three.

1717 – Peter III of Portugal was born to John V of Portugal and Maria Anna of Austria. In 1777, he became married to the Portuguese heiress, Maria, who was also his niece. In 1777, they succeeded Joseph I as co-rulers. They ruled together until his death in 1786. They would be succeeded by their son, John VI of Portugal.

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