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Events:
1483 – Richard III of England is crowned as King of England, after his two young nephews, Edward V and Richard, Duke of York, were declared illegitimate. Richard was the younger brother of Edward IV.

Birthdays:
1782 – Maria Luisa of Spain is born to Charles IV and Queen Maria Luisa. In 1795, she married her cousin, the Duke of Parma. Her husband was made King of Etruria, which was formed from Tuscany. Soon after Europe was engulfed in the Napoleonic Wars and she was a widow. Her lands were annexed by Napoleon, and she spent the rest of the wars in exile. After the war, her kingdom was dissolved, and she was compensated with the Duchy of Lucca. Her son Charles succeeded her as Duke of Lucca, and was also Duke of Parma.

1796 – The future Nicholas I of Russia is born to Emperor Paul I and Sophie Dorothea of Wurttemberg. He became Emperor in 1825 after the death of his brother, Alexander I. He had another elder brother, Constantine, who refused his claim to the throne. At the onset of his reign, the Decembrist Revolt took place, and Nicholas developed harsh reactionary policies as a result. His rule also saw the failed Crimean War. However literary arts and ballet flourished under his reign, as did Russian nationalism.

1832 – Maximilian I of Mexico is born in Vienna, Austria. He was an Austrian Archduke as the grandson of Emperor Francis II, and a younger brother of Franz Joseph I. He had spent time in the Austrian Navy, and was married to Charlotte of Belgium. In 1859, he was offered to Imperial Crown of Mexico, which he refused, then refused again in 1861. In 1863 he accepted the crown and lost is Austrian royal status. However, the Mexican monarchists were not in the majority and he was quickly overthrown and captured. He had tried to implement several liberal reforms, and wanted to help the people, but was short sighted in his affairs.

1868 – A daughter is born to Edward VII and Alexandra of the United Kingdom, to be christened Victoria. She was said to be close to her brother, who later became George V. She never married, or had children and remained as a companion to her parents, especially after her father died in 1910, she stayed with her mother. She died in 1935, just one month before her beloved brother. Called Toria, she was at one time courted by Carlos I of Spain, and Nicholas II of Russia.

Deaths:
1189 – Henry II of England died in Chinon, France at age 56, and after over 30 years on the throne of England. His father was Geoffrey, Count of Anjou, and his mother was Matilda, former Holy Roman Empress, and claimant of the crown of England as the daughter of Henry I. Henry had married the equally formidable Eleanor, Duchess of Aquitaine. Through him, the House of Plantagenet was founded, who would rule England for the next 300 years. He spawned two of the most famous monarchs in English history, Richard I ‘the Lionheart’ and John I. He also held considerable lands in France, including Anjou, Normandy, Aquitaine, Maine, Nantes, and Brittany, ruling more of France than the King of France.

1249 – Alexander II of Scotland died of a fever on the Hebrides Islands. He had been king since 1214, after the death of his father, William I. Shortly after his accession, he provided support to the Barons in rebellion against King John of England. However after John’s death, the rebellion ended. Alexander’s first wife would be John’s daughter, Joan, the sister of the new king, Henry III. The rest of his reign was filled with keeping the peace with England and Norway.

1553 – Edward VI of England, the boy King, died at Greenwich Palace of Consumption. He was just 15 years old, and had been king since 1547, when at age 9, his father, Henry VIII died. He was the first truly Protestant ruler of England and made sweeping religious reforms. When his death was seen as immenent, steps were taken to disinherit his Catholic half-sister, Mary, who would undo his reforms. He attempted to have his cousin, Jane Grey set up as Queen, but her rule only lasted nine days, before Mary was installed as Queen.

1762 – Peter III of Russia is found dead at age 34. Just weeks before, he had been forced to abdicate as Tsar of Russia in a coup led by his wife, now Catherine II of Russia, who is now known as Catherine the Great. He was German by birth and blood, and his Prussian friendly policies had made him wildly unpopular. His rule only last six months before his deposition. It wouldn’t be until his son by Catherine, Paul, took the throne, that Peter was buried with the honors of a Tsar.

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