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1709 – The Battle of Poltava takes place between the Swedish forces of Charles XII and Peter the Great of Russia as part of the Great Northern War. It would be a decisive victory for the Russians and signaled the nations rise in prominence.

1808 – The Bayonne Statute is signed by Joseph Bonaparte, brother of French Emperor Napoleon I. The document was to act as a foundation for his Kingship of Spain, which was ultimately unsuccessful.

1545 – Carlos, Prince of Asturias is born in Spain to the future King Phillip II of Spain and Maria Manuela of Portugal. Because of the close family relations of his parents and grandparents, Don Carlos as we was called, was said to be mentally unstable from a young age. In 1568, he was part of a plot to overthrow his father, because he was passed over for a military appointment. He was arrested, imprisoned, and left in solitary confinement. He died in prison just six months later, with rumors that Phillip had him poisoned.

1792 – Therese of Saxe-Hildburghausen is born to the Duke and Duchess of Saxe-Altenburg. In 1810, she married Crown Prince Ludwig of Bavaria, the future Ludwig I. The celebration of their marriage became known as the first Oktoberfest, which continues today. She was loved by the Bavarian people, and was popular despite her husbands affairs which he was not discreet about. In 1848 he was forced to abdicate because of the scandal associated with an affair. But Therese’s son by him became Maximilian II of Bavaria, and her younger son, Otto, became King of Greece.

1830 -Princess Alexandra of Saxe-Altenburg is born in Germany. She married Russian Grand Duke Constantine Nikolaevich, a younger son of Tsar Nicholas I. She took the name Alexandra Iosfina when she converted to Russian Orthodoxy. Their eldest daughter Olga married the King of Greece and is the grandmother of the British Duke of Edinburgh. She tried to bear her husbands affairs and illegitimate children as best she could. In 1889 he was incapacitated by a stroke, and she was his caretaker for the rest of his life.

1850 – Prince Adolphus, the Duke of Cambridge, died in London at age 76. He was the youngest child of British King George III and Queen Charlotte. He spent his youth in military training in Hanover, Germany, and even fought in the Napoleonic Wars. He married a Hessian Princess, and was the grandfather of the future Queen Mary of Britain. He would spend over 20 years as the Viceroy of Hanover, ruling the nation on behalf of his two elder brothers, George IV and William IV. He returned to England after the accession of another brother, Ernest Augustus, as King of Hanover.

1859 – King Oscar I of Sweden died in Stockholm at age 60. In 1810 his father, Jean-Baptiste Bernadotte was elected to succeed Charles XIII. He succeeded his father in 1844, and ruled until 1859. Before his accession, he married Josephine of Leuchtenberg, daughter of Eugene de Beauharnais, and granddaughter of Josephine de Beauharnais. He was very liberal in his youth, but settled down after his accession. But under him, Norway was given more equality, and early freedom of the press laws and gender equality laws.

Have a great day!