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1575 – The Raid of the Redeswire takes place along the English-Scottish border, as the last major raid between the two countries. It would be a victory for the Scottish and the two countries would be united by a common monarch in 1603.

1207 – Elizabeth of Hungary is born as a daughter of Andrew II of Hungary and Gertrude of Merania. In 1221, when aged 14, she was married to a German Landgrave. She became known for her charity works, especially for the poor. Her husband did not object to her works, as he thought his money was going to a good cause. At age 20, she was widowed and she went to live in a convent, where she became the abbess. She continued her work with the poor and sick until her death at age 24. She was later canonized as a Saint of the Catholic Church.

1528 – Archduchess Anna of Austria is born to Holy Roman Emperor Ferdinand I and Empress Anne of Bohemia. She was married to Albert V, Duke of Bavaria when she was just 17 years old. They would have seven children She and her husband became known for their patronage of the arts, and founded museums and libraries.

1307 – Edward I of England died at age 68. He was the son of Henry III and Eleanor of Provence, and was active at his father’s court, even fighting in the Second Barons War. In 1270, he left for the Holy Land, to participate in the Ninth Crusade. He was in Sicily in 1272, when he learned of his father’s death and his accession to the throne. He would take almost two years to get back to England though, and be crowned in 1274. Edward then became known for his reworking of the English law system, and later for his invasions of Scotland, which he would never fully see through. He became known by his nicknames too, namely “Longshanks” for his imposing height, and later as Malleus Scotorum, or the Hammer of the Scots. He was succeeded by his only surviving son, Edward II.

1537 – Sixteen year old Madeline of Valois died in Scotland less than 6 months after becoming Queen consort of Scotland. She was married to James V of Scotland in January 1537, and had only arrived in her new country in May. She was ill as soon as they landed. James held her as the daughter of Francis I and Queen Claude died.

1572 – Sigismund II Augustus died in Krakow as the King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania. He was childless, and the last of his Jagiellon dynasty. He had succeeded his father in 1548, and ruled until his death. In 1569, he had helped to over see the union of Poland and Lithuania as the Commonwealth, with an elected monarch. He married three times to attempt to have children, but it was unsuccessful.

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