, , , , , , , , , , , ,

1540 – The marriage of Henry VIII and Anne of Cleves was formally annulled. Anne was Henry’s fourth wife, and this would be Anne’s only marriage. The annulment was declared on grounds of non-consummation and Anne’s pre-contract with the son of the Duke of Lorraine. Anne consented to the split and was given a yearly monetary settlement, several houses, and a place at court.

1807 – French Emperor Napoleon I and Russian Emperor Alexander I sign the Treaty of Tilsit. Prussia also signed the treaty which ceded territory to France. Napoleon created the Kingdom of Westphalia from some of the territory he gained.

1810 – The Kingdom of Holland is annexed by Napoleon I as part of the First French Empire.

1511 – Dorothea of Saxe-Lauenburg is born in Germany to the Duke of Saxe-Lauenburg. In 1525, she was married to Christian III of Denmark and Norway, much to her chagrin. Despite the unhappiness of the marriage, they had five children, who included the future Frederick II of Denmark and Norway, and Magnus, King of Livonia. Frederick became King and Dorothea a widow in 1559. Her relationship with her children was poor from then on out, and she died in exile in 1571.

1578 – The future Ferdinand II, Holy Roman Emperor was born in Graz, Austria. He became Emperor in 1619 after the death of his childless cousin Matthias died. The Thirty Years War fully encompassed his reign. He would have seven children with his wife, Maria Anna of Bavaria, who included Emperor Ferdinand III and a Queen consort of Poland. He ruled until his death in 1637.

1786 – Princess Sophie Helene Beatrice is born at Versailles as the youngest child of King Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette. The child lived less than a year, and died before her first birthday the following year, after having convulsions for several days.

1654 – Ferdinand IV, King of the Romans died of smallpox at age 20. He was the eldest son and heir of his father, Ferdinand III, Holy Roman Emperor, and was starting to take of his father’s titles and duties.

1746 – Phillip V of Spain died in Madrid at age 62. He was French born, but had a claim to the Spanish throne, and was named the successor of Charles II of Spain, in his will. The War of Spanish Succession would be fought to protect his claim. In 1700 he officially became King, and ruled for the first time until 1724. He abdicated in favor of his son, Louis. Louis was young, unmarried, and died of smallpox just seven months into his reign. Phillip took then throne again, and was king until 1746. His rule is the longest in modern Spanish history.

1985 – Charlotte, Grand Duchess of Luxembourg died at age 89 in the capitol city of Luxembourg. She had reigned from 1919, when her elder sister, Marie-Adelaide, abdicated in her favor. She abdicated herself in 1964. The year of her accession, she was married to Felix of Bourbon-Parma, with whom she had six children. Much like other rulers in Europe during World War II, she spent the war in exile, working for her country’s cause, and became a figurehead for Nazi opposition. Her younger sister, Antonia, who had married into the Bavarian royal family, would spend time in the Dachau concentration camp.

Have a great day!