1460 – The Battle of Northhampton took place in England as part of the Wars of the Roses. The battle was decisive victory for the Yorkists, and the Lancastrian King, Henry VI, was captured. Henry would be formally deposed the following year in favor of Edward IV.
1553 – Lady Jane Grey, cousin to Edward VI of England accepts the throne of England. She was put forth as an alternative heir to the Protestant Edward’s Catholic half sister, Mary. Jane would only be Queen for nine days.
1778 – Louis XVI signs the Declaration of War against Britain to assist the American colonies during their rebellion.
1451 – James III of Scotland was possibly born today. He became King in 1460 after the death of his father, James II. He ruled through regents until 1469. Also that year, he married Margaret of Denmark, by whom he had three sons, who included the future James IV. In the early 1480’s he was at war with England, and was briefly unseated, regaining power in 1482. He died in 1488, while fighting with his son and heir. He was widely an unpopular and ineffective ruler.
1711 – Princess Amelia of Great Britain is born in Hanover, Germany. She was the daughter of King George II. Amelia Island in Florida is named in her honor. She moved to England with her family after her grandfather’s accession to the British throne and remained in England, never marrying.
1736 – Maria Walpole is born in London. She was the granddaughter of Robert Walpole, who is considered to be the first Prime Minister of Britain. She had three daughters by her first husband, but in 1766, she was thrust into fame, when she married Prince William Henry, Duke of Gloucester, son of George III. She was illegitimate and the marriage was not consented to by the monarch, and because of this marriage, the Royal Marriages Act of 1772 was passed, which forbade any marriage by a descendant of George III without Royal approval.
1867 – Prince Maximilian of Baden is born in Germany as the heir to the Grand Duchy of Baden. He served in the military during World War I. For a brief time in 1918, he served as Chancellor of Germany and Ministerial offices in Prussia. He was helping to oversee to governmental change from a monarchy to a parliamentary system.
1965 – Princess Alexia of Greece and Denmark is born in Greece to Constantine II of Greece and Queen Anne-Marie. She was heir apparent until her father’s deposition. She is currently living in the Canary Islands with her husband and children.
1290 – Ladislaus IV of Hungary was assassinated at age 27. The country was in chaos due to religious differences and strife over his advisors. He was the son of Stephen V of Hungary and Elizabeth the Cuman. Ladislaus was married to Elizabeth of Anjou but they were childless so his successor was a cousin from another branch.
1480 – Rene of Anjou, King of Naples, died in Aix-en-Provence at age 71. He became King of Naples in 1435 until 1442, and after he used the title only nominally. He was a key player in the Hundred Years War, and he aided the French forces, out of dislike for the Burgundians. After 1453, he installed his elder son with Duchy of Lorraine, and all but retired from public life in 1466. He was called “Good King Rene”.
1584 – William of Orange, or William the Silent, was assassinated by a Catholic Frenchman. William had been one of the leaders of the Dutch Revolts against Spanish rule, and was considered to be a traitor by many. William is still considered to be a national hero of the Netherlands, with the following Dutch monarchs to be his descendants, the current national anthem is based on a propaganda song of his, and the flag, arms, and motto of the countries are based on William’s.
Have a great day!