1174 – William I of Scotland is captured during the Revolt of 1173-1174. He was a key player in the rebellions against Henry II of England.
1249 – A seven year old Alexander III was crowned as the King of Scots at Scone. He would rule through regents until 1262, at age 21. Alexander ruled until his sudden death from a fall off his horse in 1286.
1608 – The future Ferdinand III, Holy Roman Empire is born in Graz, Austria. He was the son of Emperor Ferdinand II, and ruled since 1637. While Emperor, Ferdinand granted the rights to set their own foreign policies to all the rulers of the small German states under his authority, thus beginning the slow break up of the Empire. He was also a major patron of music and was said to have composed some pieces himself.
1776 – Caroline of Baden is born in Germany to the Hereditary Princess and Princess of Baden. In 1797, she married Maximilian, who became the Elector of Bavaria in 1799. In 1806, at the breakup of the Empire, her husband was promoted to King of Bavaria, making Caroline Queen consort. They would have no sons that lived until adulthood, but her daughters would marry into other German and Austria Royal families.
1798 – Princess Charlotte of Prussia is born to King Frederick William III and Queen Louise of Mecklenburg-Strelitz. On her birthday in 1817, she married the future Nicholas I of Russia, and converted to Russian Orthodoxy, taking the name Alexandra Feodorovna. The marriage was happy, and produced several children, including Alexander II. Her husband’s reign was marred but revolts and wars, and Alexandra suffered ill health for quite a while. She did outlive her husband though, dying in 1860 and age 62.
1889 – Princess Louise Battenburg is born in Hesse, Germany. Her father was Prince Louis of Battenburg and her mother was Princess Victoria of Hesse and by Rhine. In 1917, her family’s name was changed to “Mountbatten” after her family renounced its German titles for British ones. She was then known as Lady Louise Mountbatten, after her father was created a Marquess. She traveled throughout Europe as a child and received several marriage proposals, but in 1923, she married Swedish Crown Prince Gustaf Adolph, later Gustaf VI Adolph. They would become King and Queen in 1950. It was a happy marriage and they were in love. She was respected in her new home, and had great love for it herself. However they only had one child, a daughter who was stillborn. She succumb to illness and died in 1965.
1189 – Matilda of England, Duchess of Saxony died in Brunswick, Germany, in her early 30’s. She was the daughter of Henry II of England and Eleanor of Aquitaine. Her husband was called Henry the Lion, and she would act as his regent while he was away on campaign. Her second son would go on to be Otto IV, Holy Roman Emperor.
1807 – Henry Benedict Stuart died in Rome at age 82. He was the younger son of the “Old Pretender” James Stuart, and the younger brother of “Bonnie Prince Charlie”. He entered the Church at a young age and became a Cardinal. He was never recognized as King of England and Scotland, but he referred to himself publicly and privately as the Cardinal-Duke of York.
Have a good one!