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1381 – Richard II oversees the execution of John Ball, one of the leaders of the failed Peasant’s Rebellion.

1737 – Princess Louise of France is born at Versailles to King Louis XV and Queen Marie Leszczynska. She was their tenth and youngest child. She grew up at Fontevraud Abbey, but returned to live at Versailles at her father’s court. She later took the vows of a nun, and was prioress of the convent at Saint-Denis. Louise died there in 1789 at the age of 50.

1837 – Stephanie of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen is born in Germany to the Prince Hohenzollern, Charles Anthony, and his wife, Josephine of Baden. In 1858, she was married to Peter V of Portugal. She founded a few hospitals, but within a year of the marriage, she died of diphtheria in 1859. She was just 22 years old, and Pedro never remarried.

1291 – Rudolph I of Germany died at age 73 in Speyer, Germany. He was elected King of Germany in 1273, he was one of the early monarchs of the House of Habsburg and helped push them into prominence in Europe. He attempted to consolidate his power by establishing peace among the German regions, but was unsuccessful. His attempts at peace would continue until shortly before his death.

1685 – James Scott, Duke of Monmouth was executed in London. He was an illegitimate son of the late King Charles II. Monmouth was also a Protestant, and tried to overthrow his Catholic Uncle, now King James II and VII. The rebellion failed, and the Duke was captured and executed.

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