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1290 – Edward I of England issued the Edict of Expulsion, which banished all Jews from English lands. Over the next few hundred years, Jewish people were only allowed in the country with special permission, and suspected Jews were arrested. It wasn’t until after the Civil War, under Oliver Cromwell, that Jews were formally invited back into the country, with hopes they would help rebuild the country and the economy.

1389 – England and France signed the Truce of Leulinghem which was supposed to be a truce in the Hundred Years War. The treaty would be broken by Henry IV within a year of the deposition of his cousin Richard II and his own coronation. The 13 year truce would be the longest peace in the war, which would continue for about another 50 years.

1555 – Queen Mary I and Phillip of Spain signed the charter which reincorporated the College of Arms in England. It was originally incorporated in 1484 by King Richard III. The College is one of only a few official heraldic organizations in Europe. Still in existence today, they act on behalf of the Queen on matters of national symbols, including flags, and granting new coats of arms, and the like.

1501 – Isabella of Austria is born in Brussels. She was the daughter of Phillip and Joanna of Castile, and sister to Holy Roman Emperor Charles V. In 1514, she married Christian II of Denmark, becoming Queen consort of Denmark and Norway, and later Queen of Sweden until her husbands deposition in 1523 and 1521 from both crowns. In 1520, she served as regent of Denmark for her husband.

1552 – The future Rudolf II, Holy Roman Emperor is born in Vienna. He was the son of Emperor Maximilian II and Empress Maria of Spain. He has a mixed legacy, as both a influential patron of the arts and sciences, and as an ineffective ruler who laid the groundwork for the Thirty Years War.

1918 – Russian Grand Duchess Elizabeth Feodorovna Romanova was killed by Bolshevik forces. She was born as Princess Elisabeth of Hesse and by Rhine and was the sister to Russian Empress Alexandra. In 1884, she had married Grand Duke Sergei Alexandrovich, son of Alexander II of Russia, and uncle of Emperor Nicholas II. He was murdered in 1905, and after Elisabeth devoted herself to charity, and became a nun. Later in 1981, she was canonized by the Russian Orthodox Church.

1938 – Queen Marie of Romania died at age 62 in her adopted homeland. British by birth, she was a daughter of Prince Alfred, Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, and son of Queen Victoria. In 1893, she married Romanian Crown Prince Ferdinand, and in 1914, he became King. It was not a happy marriage, and Ferdinand may not have been the father of all their children, as it is known that Marie had affairs. During World War I, she was charitable with the Red Cross, and on the diplomatic side. She would be called the “Soldier Queen” after the war for her efforts, and even traveled to France for summits to ensure the Allies, who promised support to Romania, kept those promises. Her eldest son would become King Carol II, and her two eldest daughters would become Queen consorts of Greece and Yugoslavia.

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