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1298 – Edward I of England scored a victory in the Scottish War of Independence at the Battle of Falkirk. William Wallace’s army was ill-equipped against Edward’s longbowmen. The loss would cause Wallace to resign as Guardian of Scotland.

1706 – The Acts of Union were agreed upon by commissioners sent by both England and Scotland. The acts were then sent to each Parliament for passage. These acts would lead to the union of England and Scotland into Great Britian.

1210 – Joan of England is born to King John of England and Isabella of Angouleme. She married Alexander II of Scotland in 1221 when she was eleven, and he 23. They had no children, but she died suddenly at age 27.

1478 – Phillip I of Castile is born in Belgium to Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian I and Mary, Duchess of Burgundy. He married Joanna of Castile, daughter of Ferdinand and Isabella of Spain. They had six children, two of which would become Holy Roman Emperors, and daughters who were Queen consorts of various European countries. After Isabella died, he and Joanna became King and Queen of Castile until Phillip’s early death in 1506.

1535 – Catherine Stenbock is born in Sweden to humble beginnings. But she was the niece of Margareta Leijonhufvud, who was previously married to King Gustav I of Sweden. After her aunt’s death, Catherine caught his eye, and they married in 1552. They were only married for 8 years before Gustav’s death. She stayed in Sweden and attempted to remarry, but was prevented by politics. She lived out her days and worked with children until her death at age 86.

2013 – A prince is born to Prince William and Catherine, the Duke and Duchess of Cambridge. He is named George Louis Alexander, and is currently third in line for the British throne.

1461 – A 58 year old Charles VII of France died. He had become King after the military successes of troops led by Joan of Arc. The French were able to finally push the English out in 1453, and Charles had a relatively quiet reign remaining. However, the last part of his time was marred by conflicts with his son, Louis, to the point Charles banished him in 1446, never to see him again. That same son succeeded him as Louis XI.

1832 – Napoleon II, son of Napoleon Bonaparte, died at age 21 of Tuberculosis. He never actually ruled France, and spent most of his life in Austria, known as Franz, Duke of Reichstadt. Its been joked that because he never actually ruled France, he was France’s best leader, since he brought no wars, taxation, or tyranny.

Have a great day!