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1469 – The Battle of Edgecote Moor takes place as part of the Wars of the Roses. The forces of King Edward IV and Richard Neville, Earl of Warwick met and was a turning point in the war. Neville had helped Edward win the throne, but would then help Henry VI reclaim it, after being embarrassed by Edward.

1581 – The Low Countries (modern day Netherlands) issued the Act of Abjuration which declared it independence from the Spanish rule of Phillip II.

1936 – King Edward VIII of the United Kingdom performed one of his few official duties before his abdication. He unveiled the Canadian National Vimy Memorial in France, which commemorated Canadian soldiers killed in France during World War I. Edward would abdicate before the year was out.

1678 – The future Holy Roman Emperor Joseph I is born In Vienna. He was crowned King of Hungary in 1687 at age 9, King of the Romans in 1690 at 11, and finally Emperor in 1705 at the death of his father, Leopold I. He had continued the War of Spanish Succession to install his brother as King of Spain. Instead his brother would succeed him as Emperor, becoming Charles VI. Joseph had two daughters though, the eldest becoming Queen consort of Poland, the younger eventually becoming Holy Roman Empress, when her husband, a Bavarian prince, was elected as Charles VII. He would die at age 32 of smallpox.

1801 – Austrian Archduke Maximilian Francis died today in Vienna. He was the youngest child of Emperor Francis I and Empress Maria Theresa. He spent most of his life in the church as both a Bishop and Archbishop. He was also one of the first employers and patrons of a young Ludwig von Beethoven.

1867 – The former Greek King Otto I died in his native Bavaria at age 52. In 1832 he was proclaimed King of Greece after the Convention of London, which gave Greece its autonomy. In 1843, he gave Greece its first constitution. Unfortunately due to the political pressure and military failures during the Crimean War, Otto was deposed in 1862.

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