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Events:
1214 – The Battle of the Bouvines took place between the forces of Phillip II of France and King John of England. The battle took place in the County of Flanders. The forces against the French consisted of English, Angevin French, German, and Flemish men. The battle was a decisive victory in favor of Phillip II to the point that Emperor Otto IV was deposed after and King John would sign the Magna Carta later that year.

1689 – The Battle of Killiecrankie took place in Scotland between Highland forces supporting the deposed King James VII and II, and forces of the newly installed King William III and Mary II. The battle would be a rout in favor of the Jacobites, but their leader was killed, which would lead to future losses in the future.

No major birthdays.

Deaths:
1101 – 27 year old Conrad II of Italy dies in Florence after being deposed as King of Italy and Germany, by his father Holy Roman Emperor Henry IV. He had been crowned in Germany in 1087, and in Italy 1091. He had been at odds with his father, since the death of his mother, shortly before his German coronation. Conrad spent the rest of his life warring with the Emperor.

1276 – James I of Aragon died at age 68 in Valencia, Spain. He had been King of Spain since the death of his father, Peter II, in 1213, when James was just five years old. In 1231 he would become King of the island of Majorca, and King of Valencia in 1238. These annexations earned him the nickname “the Conqueror”. He attempted a Crusade in 1269, but was deterred by bad weather. James is also known for his patronage of Catalan writers, and wrote in Catalan himself, being one of the first proponents of the language.

1382 – Queen Joanna of Naples was assassinated in her bed at age 56. It is believed that she was killed on the orders of her niece’s husband, because of her support for the Avignon Papacy. Joanna was an effective ruler for her time, and every proclamation and edict from her rule, was signed and sealed by her, despite how insignificant. She also insisted on free medical treatment for the poor and her nation was said to be ahead of its time in terms of healthcare.

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