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1565 – Mary, Queen of Scots married her second husband, Henry Stuart, Lord Darnley. They would have one son together, the future James VI and I of Scotland and England. The marriage would end with Darnley’s death in 1567.

1567 – James VI of Scotland (later also known James I of England) was crowned at Stirling Castle. He was only a year old.

1863 – The Arc de Triomphe is dedicated in Paris in honor of all the soldiers who died in the Revolution and the Napoleonic Wars.

1981 – Charles, Prince of Wales married Lady Diana Spencer in Saint Paul’s Cathedral in London. It was a beautiful and lavish ceremony. There were over 3000 people in attendance, including the majority of European Royals, and an estimated 750 million people from around the world watched on television.

1846 – Isabel, Princess Imperial of Brazil is born in Rio de Janeiro to Emperor Pedro II and Empress Teresa Christina. Her parents would have no surviving sons, so she would be her father’s heir. She would marry a French Count, and was said to be learned, and spoke four languages. Three times she would serve as regent for her father, during his absences abroad. She was well liked by the public, and in 1888, she would sign the Golden Law, which freed all slaves in Brazil. The people gave her the nickname “the Redemptress” for her action. However it was widely unpopular with nobles and wealthy landowners. The following year the monarchy in Brazil would be deposed and Isabel lived out her days on her husbands lands in France.

1030 – Olaf II of Norway died in exile after trying to reclaim his throne. He had been King from 1015 until 1028. He is still a cultural hero in Norway. Olaf is depicted in Norway’s coat of arms, and after his death, he was both given the title of Norway’s Eternal King, and was canonized as a Saint. Also the Norwegian Order of St. Olav is named for him.

1095 – Ladislaus I of Hungary died in his nation after almost twenty years on the throne. He became King after his brother, Geza I. He ruled during a time of civil war with his cousins, but he greatly expanded Hungarian territory and was widely loved but he was a harsh legislator. One hundred years after his death he would be canonized as a Saint of the Catholic Church.

1108 – Philip I of France died at age 56. He had been King since age 7, with his mother, Anna of Kiev serving as his regent. He was much more a successful ruler than his father, and his 48 years on the throne was unprecedented at the time. He would be married twice and he would be succeeded by his son as Louis VI.

1900 – Umberto I of Italy was assassinated. His killer said he wanted to avenge the people who died in the Beva-Beccaris massacre two years before. He also attempted to expand Italy’s colonial presence in Africa and his reign would be one of political and social turmoil.

Have an awesome day!