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1635 – The Siege of Schenkenschans began as part of the Eighty Years War. The fortress was being held by Spanish Imperial forces, but the Dutch rebels, being led by the Stadtholder, Frederick Henry, Prince of Orange, were successful, nine months later, in capturing the important fort.

1656 – The Battle of Warsaw takes place as part of the Second Northern War. The belligerents were the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth and Sweden, with back up from Germany. It would be a victory for the Swedish, but it would not affect the overall outcome of the war.

1872 – Princess Clementine of Belgium is born to King Leopold II and Queen Marie Henriette. In 1910, she would marry Prince Napoleon Victor Bonaparte, heir to the Bonaparte claim to the French throne. Unlike her sisters, she married older, and chose her spouse for love. They would have a daughter and a son within the first five years of their marriage. Clementine was widowed in 1926, and would never remarry. She lived to her 82nd year, dying in France.

1936 – In not so dead royalty, Spanish Infanta Pilar, Duchess of Badajoz is born in France. Her father was Infante Juan, Count of Barcelona and Maria-Mercedes of Bourbon-Two Sicilies. The Spanish royal family was exiled at the time, but years later, her brother was restored and is the current King, Juan Carlos I.

1683 – Maria Theresa of Spain died at Versailles. She was the Queen consort of France as the wife of Louis XIV. She stayed out of politics and handled Louis’ numerous affairs, giving him six children. However, only one child would survive into adulthood, a son also named Louis. Her grandson through the younger Louis would go on to be King Phillip V of Spain.

1900 – Prince Alfred, Duke of Edinburg, and Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, died in Coburg, Germany. He was the second son of Queen Victoria and Prince Albert. He spent his youth in the Royal Navy, and in 1866, was created Duke of Edinburgh. Alfred also became the first member of the royal family to visit Australia. In 1874, he married Russian Grand Duchess Maria Alexandrovna, daughter of Alexander II. They would have five children survive adulthood, who include Queen Marie of Romania. Finally in 1893, he became Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha after his brother, the future Edward VII renounced his claim.

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