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1423 – The Battle of Cravant takes place in France as part of the Hundred Years War. It would be a victory for the English/Burgundian alliance against the French. It would be one of the few times the allies would fight together.

1492 – The Alhambra Decree takes affect in Spain, expelling Jews from all Spanish lands and territories. It would not be revoked until 1968.

1588 – The Spanish Armada is spotted off the English coast. Troops would be assembled on the ground, but the fleet would never make it to English shores.

1527 – The future Maximilian II was born in Vienna. He became Holy Roman Emperor in 1564 after the death of his father, Ferdinand I. He married his cousin Maria of Spain, with whom he had sixteen children. Only nine would survive into adulthood. He was said to be very tolerant of the Protestants, despite previous tensions and opposition from his Spanish cousins. Two of his sons would later become Emperors and Rudolf II and Matthias I. His daughters Anna and Elizabeth would be Queen consort of Spain and Queen consort of France.

1737 – Princess Augusta of Great Britain is born in London to the Prince of Wales, Frederick, son of King George II, and Princess Augusta of Saxe-Gotha. In 1764, she married Charles William Ferdinand, Duke of Brunswick, with whom she would have seven children, despite the unhappiness of the arranged marriage. One of their daughters, Caroline, would later marry the future King George IV of the United Kingdom. In 1807, after the death of her husband, she moved back to London, while her brother, George III was king.

1750 – John V of Portugal died in Lisbon at age 60. He had been King since 1706, at the death of his father, Peter II. In 1707, he married Austrian Archduchess Maria Anna, and they would have 3 surviving children, who include Joseph I and Peter III. He was known as a great patron of the arts, and amassed one of the greatest art collections in all of Europe. He overhauled the economic system of Portugal, which at first worked, but were unpopular with the nobility, but later they were shown to be ineffective.

1993 – King Baudouin of Belgium died at age 62 of heart failure, while in Spain. He had been King since 1951, when he was age 20. Under his reign, the Belgian Congo became independent, and he attended the ceremony. In 1990, he was actually declared unable to rule for a day, due to his refusal to give Royal Assent to a bill he disagreed with for religious reasons. On the day he did not rule the bill was signed into effect by the other members of the government, and he was declared capable of ruling again the following day. He was childless, and was succeeded by his brother, Albert II.

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