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1192 – Richard I of England landed near the town of Jaffa in the Holy Land. The Lionheart and his Crusaders were ambushed by the Muslim army of Saladin, but it would a victory for Richard and his men.

1800 – The Acts of Union passed Parliament. The Acts officially combined the nations of Great Britain and Ireland into the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Since 1603, the nations had operated under the same sovereign, but with separate Governments.

1893 – Alexander I of Greece was born near Athens. He was a younger son of Constantine I, and became King in 1917 when his father was forced to abdicate, and both his father and his brother, the Crown Prince, were exiled. Alexander had little to do with government though, as the Prime Minister held most of the power. In 1919, he married a commoner, Aspasia Manos, and they would have one daughter, barred from the Greek succession due to her mothers humble origins. The girl would later become Queen consort Alexandra of Yugoslavia. In 1920, Alexander was bitten by a macaque and developed an infection. His father would later be restored to the crown.

1137 – Louis VI of France died at age 55. He had been King since 1108, and was the son of Phillip I. Like other Kings of his time, he spent much time at war. However he would emerge as a stronger King than his predecessors. Months before his death, he would be made guardian of Eleanor of Aquitaine, heiress to the richest Duchy in France. He would marry Eleanor to his son and heir, the future Louis VII.

1402 – Edmund of Langley died at age 61. He was the younger son of Edward III of England and Phillippa of Hainault. The Yorkist claimants to the throne of England are descended from him. He would spend time on military campaigns in both France and Castilian Spain. Edmund also fought on the side of Henry Bolingbroke when he invaded England and overthrew Richard II, becoming Henry IV.

1714 – Queen Anne of Great Britain and Ireland died at Kensington Palace in London. She was 49 years old. She was the younger daughter of James II and VII and his first wife, and sister to Queen Mary II. In 1683, she was married to Prince George of Denmark. They were said to be devoted to each other, but they would have no children that survived childhood. She was supportive of her sister Mary, and her brother in law William, when they overthrew James in 1688, during the Glorious Revolution. Anne was a presence at court, but had a falling out with her sister, and they would be estranged until Mary’s early death. Anne would become Queen in 1702, when William died childless. Just a few years later, Anne gave Royal Assent to the Acts of Union, which united England and Scotland into Great Britain. Her successors would her German cousins, the Hanovers.

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