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Events:
1830 – Charles X of France, abdicated the throne of France. His son, Louis-Antoine, Duke of Angouleme, also abdicated his claim, twenty minutes later. Charles would be the last King of the mighty House of Bourbon.

Birthdays:
1858 – The future Queen Emma of the Netherlands is born in Germany. She was the wife of William III of the Netherlands, and would serve as regent for her young daughter, Wilhelmina, after her husband’s death in 1890. She stepped down as regent in 1898 as Wilhelmina turned 18. She remained active as the popular Queen mother until her death.

1868 – Constantine I of Greece is born in Athens to King George I and Queen Olga. He had actually been king twice, the first time from 1913-1917, when he abdicated in favour of his son Alexander. Alexander died suddenly just a few years later, and a national referendum was voted on, where the people decided to bring Constantine back as King. After his second abdication, he was forced into exile in Italy, where he died in 1923.

Deaths:
1100 – King William II of England was shot by an arrow while hunting and died. He was the eldest son of William the Conqueror, an succeeded him in 1087. He had a difficult relationship with the church. William was called “William Rufus” do to his red-faced appearance. He had no legitimate children, and would be succeeded by his younger brother as Henry I.

1589 – French King Henry III died at age 37. He was a younger son Henry II and Catherine de Medici. Before he was King of France, he was actually elected as King of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, from 1573 until 1575. He became King of France in 1574 after the death of his elder brother, Charles IX. He died at the hand of a Catholic assassin, Jacques Clement, who thought Henry was too tolerant of Protestants.

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