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1265 – The Battle of Evesham takes place in England as part of the Second Baron’s War. The army of King Henry III, led by his son, the future Edward I, would defeat the rebels. Simon de Montfort, the leader of the rebels would be killed in battle.

1900 – Lady Elizabeth Bowes-Lyon is born to the future Earl and Countess of Strathmore and Kinghorne. In 1921, Prince Albert, Duke of York proposed marriage to her. She declined, stating she didn’t want to be in the public eye as a royal. He would ask again, and again, Elizabeth refused. Finally in 1923, he asked a third time, and she agreed. She would be the first royal bride to lay her bouquet at the Tomb of the Unknown Soldier, in honor of her brother who died in World War I. Ten years later Elizabeth and Bertie became King and Queen of the United Kingdom, who already had two young daughters, the future Elizabeth II and Princess Margaret. She remained in the public life and was a popular member of the royal family up through her daughter’s reign. She passed away in 2002, shortly after the death of her daughter Margaret.

1906 – Marie Jose of Belgium is born to King Albert I and Elisabeth of Bavaria. In 1930, she married Prince Umberto of Italy, becoming the Princess of Piedmont. They would have four children, despite the marriage being unhappy. She would be active in Italian politics, even throughout World War II. In 1946, she became Queen consort when her father in law abdicated, but 35 days later, the monarchy was abolished in Italy. They lived in Portugal for a time, but she and Umberto decided to separate, and Marie would move to Switzerland with her children. She lived there, in Mexico briefly, and returned to Italy after her husbands death. She herself died in Geneva at age 94.

1060 – Henry I of France died at age 52. He had been king on his own since 1031, when his father, Robert II died. He has the mixed legacy of being a strong king, but other Capetian historians believing he was the personification of the weakness of the Capets. He was succeeded by his son, Phillip I, who was seven years old. Henry’s third wife and Phillip’s mother, Anna of Kiev, would serve as regent.

1306 – The 16 year old Wenceslaus II of Bohemia died suddenly. He was the son of Wenceslaus II and Judith of Habsburg. He had been king of Bohemia since 1301, and King of Hungary, Croatia, and Poland since 1305. He had also married in 1305, but had no legitimate heirs.

1578 – Sebastian I of Portugal died in battle against the Moors. He was just 24 years old. He had been king since age 3, when his grandfather John III died. Sebastian’s father had died before his birth, and his mother left while he was still a baby, to serve as regent for her family’s Habsburg lands. His grandmother was his domineering regent, and Sebastian grew up very devout. His death left a succession crisis in Portugal.

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