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1100 – Henry I of England was crowned King in Westminster Abbey, just days after the mysterious death of his brother, William II.

1305 – William Wallace, one of the rebel leaders of the Scots in their war for independence against England, was captured by the English and sent to London for trial.

1461 – Alexander Jagiellon is born in Krakow to Casimir IV Jagiellon and Elisabeth Habsburg of Hungary. In 1492 he was elected Grand Duke of Lithuania, and in 1501, he succeeded his brother as King of Poland. He principally favored his Lithuanian courtiers, and spent most of his time there, until his death in 1506.

1828 – Louise of the Netherlands is born in The Hague as a granddaughter of William I. In 1850, she was married to the future Charles XV of Sweden and Norway. The marriage was unhappy, and Charles had many public mistresses. They would have two children, despite their arranged marriage. As Queen, she did not intervene in politics but was active with charity works, although she avoided ceremonial duties. She died early at age 42 of pneumonia.

1833 – Carola of Vasa is born in Vienna to the deposed Swedish Royal Family. She was born Lutheran, but to the chagrin of her father, she converted to Catholicism. In 1853, she married Albert, Crown Prince of Saxony. She was popular and supported the building of new hospitals, and entertained soldiers. Albert became King of Saxony in 1873, and they ruled until 1902, when he died. She died in Dresden just five years later.

1939 – Princess Irene of the Netherlands is born to Queen Juliana and Prince Bernhard. She is the younger sister of the former Queen Beatrix and the aunt of the current Dutch King, Willem Alexander. In 1963, she secretly converted to Catholicism and married the Spanish Carlos Hugo, Duke of Parma, and pretender to the Spanish crown. They had four children before their divorce in 1981, and she returned to the Netherlands, where she resides today.

1877 – Gustav, Prince of Vasa died in Austria. He was the one time Crown Prince of Sweden, until his family was deposed when he was ten. He had also spent time in the military of Austria, under the Habsburg family, receiving grants and titles in appreciation. He would be buried in Stockholm, by his father.

1901 – Victoria, German Empress and Princess Royal died in Germany under the reign of her son, Wilhelm II. She was the eldest child of Queen Victoria and Prince Albert, and was in close communication with her mother for all her life. She was actually only German Empress for only 3 months, as her husband, Fredrick III, was already terminally ill at his accession. Vicky had a very strained relationship with her son, who suspected her of supporting liberal policies.

Have a good one!