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1514 – Margaret Tudor, Dowager Queen of Scotland and Princess of England, married her second husband, Archibald Douglas, Earl of Angus. Margaret was the older sister of Henry VIII, mother to James V of Scotland, and grandmother to Mary, Queen of Scots.

1806 – Holy Roman Emperor Francis II formally abdicated the Imperial Crown and dissolved the Empire. However, he remained Emperor of Austria, King of Hungary, Croatia, and Bohemia.

1942 – Queen Wilhelmina of the Netherlands became the first sitting Queen to address a dual session of the United States Congress. She was visiting the US at the time, while her nation was being occupied by the Nazis. During her exile, her picture was used as a symbol of the Dutch resistance movement, and she gave radio broadcasts funneled through the BBC to the Dutch people.

1666 – Maria Sophia of Neuburg is born in Dusseldorf, Germany to Phillip William, Elector Palantine and Elisabeth Amalie of Hesse. In 1687, she became Queen consort of Portugal with her marriage to Peter II. She was a popular Queen and known for her charitable causes. She would give birth to 9 children, with only five living into adulthood. She died in 1699, just two days before her 33rd birthday.

1697 – The future Charles VII, Holy Roman Emperor is born in Brussels to the Elector of Bavaria and his wife. He married a daughter of an Emperor too, Maria Amalia, daughter of Joseph I. In 1741, he was elected to be Holy Roman Emperor after the death of Charles VI, the first non-Habsburg to be Emperor in over 300 years. He had rejected the Austrian Pragmatic Succession, and attempted to prevent the previous Emperor’s daughter, Maria Theresa, from ruling. However, in 1745, Charles died, and Maria Theresa’s husband was elected to Imperial rule.

1844 – Prince Alfred is born at Windsor Castle to Queen Victoria and Prince Albert. He spent his youth in the Royal Navy, and in 1866, was created Duke of Edinburgh. Alfred also became the first member of the royal family to visit Australia. In 1874, he married Russian Grand Duchess Maria Alexandrovna, daughter of Alexander II. They would have five children survive into adulthood, who include Queen Marie of Romania. Finally in 1893, he became Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha after his brother, the future Edward VII renounced his claim. Alfred would remain in Germany, dying there in 1900.

1272 – Stephen V of Hungary died suddenly at age 33. He was on his way to rescue his infant son, the future Ladislaus IV of Hungary, who had been kidnapped by nobles who Stephen had been fighting with. He had been king on his own since 1270 after the death of his father, Bela IV. In 1246, he had been crowned as co-king with his father to ensure the succession.

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