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1628 – The state-of-the-art Swedish Warship, The Vasa, set sail, only to sink on her maiden voyage. The disaster is attributed to King Gustavus Adolphus’ insistence that she join the fleet as soon as possible to assist with the Thirty Years War, and his council’s reluctance to let him know that there were structural problems with the ship. In the 1960’s, she was recovered from the ocean floor, and is being stored in a museum built specifically to display the ship.

1792 – An angry mob stormed the palace of Tuileries as part of the French Revolution. The King and his family had been staying there, and six weeks later the French Monarchy was abolished.

1267 – James II of Aragon is born Valencia as the son of Peter III of Aragon and Constance of Sicily. He became King of Sicily in 1285, after the death of his father, and in 1291, he succeeded his brother as King of Aragon. In 1295, he began a struggle with his younger brother over the island of Sicily, and ceased to rule the island. He was given rule of Sardinia and Corsica instead. He ruled those lands until his death in 1327, and was succeeded by his son, Alfonso IV.

1296 – John of Bohemia is born in Luxembourg to Holy Roman Emperor Henry VII and Margaret of Brabant. In 1310, he became king of Bohemia and titular King of Poland, by right of his wife, Elisabeth. He eventually lost his eyesight, earning him the nickname “John the Blind”. When the Hundred Years War broke out, John sided with King Phillip VI of France, and died while fighting at the Battle of Crecy, when he was about 50 years old.

1520 – Madeleine of Valois is born in France to Francis I and Queen Claude. She typically didn’t live at court, because of her delicate health, so she spent time being raised by her aunt, Marguerite of Navarre. In 1536, she was contracted to marry the Scottish King James V, which she did in early 1537. They married in Paris, and then left for Scotland a couple months later. By the time they arrived, she was already very ill. She died in July 1537, a month after her arrival. Madeleine was just 16 years old.

1759 – Ferdinand VI of Spain died at age 45 in Madrid. He had succeeded his father, Phillip V, in 1746, and was one of the early Spanish Bourbon monarchs. He over saw many reforms in his short reign, and reinforced the military might of Spain after the War of Austrian Succession and the Seven Years War. He had been married to Barbara of Portugal, but had no children. Ferdinand’s heir would be his brother, Charles, who was already King of Naples and Sicily.

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