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1704 – The Battle of Blenheim takes place in Bavaria, Germany, as part of the War of Spanish Succession. The British were fighting on the side of the Holy Roman Empire and the Dutch, against French and German forces. Although the French would be ultimately successful, the Alliance would be victorious today.

1792 – French King Louis XVI was arrested and declared an enemy of the State. He was jailed and the following month, France was officially declared a Republic, with Louis being stripped of all titles. He was formally referred to as “Citizen Louis Capet”. The former King was executed the following January.

1311 – Alfonso XI of Castile is born in modern day Spain as the son of Ferdinand IV of Castile and Constance of Portugal. He became king in 1312 after the death of his father, and ruled under regents until 1325. He continued the Reconquista of Granada from the Moors. He would become known for his ruthless and sometimes bloody methods. He ruled until 1350 when he passed away at age 38. Two of his sons would later become Kings and Peter I and Henry II.

1752 – Another daughter is born in Austria to Holy Roman Emperor Francis I and Empress Maria Theresa. She is named Maria Carolina. As a child, she was said to be close to her younger sister, Maria Antonia, the ill-fated Marie Antoinette of France. In 1768, she married Ferdinand IV of Naples, and despite the marriage being a duty to both parties, she bore eighteen children, with seven becoming adults. Like her mother, she was active politically and instituted many policies. In early 1799, she and her husband would be overthrown in Naples, only to be restored again that year, ruling until 1806, when they would be deposed again. She died in 1814, in her native Austria. Among her children, she numbers a King of the Two Sicilies, a Holy Roman Empress, a Queen of France, a Queen of Sardinia, and a Princess of Spain.

1792 – Adelaide of Saxe-Meiningen is born in Germany. In 1818, she married Prince William, Duke of Clarence in a double ceremony, alongside William’s brother Prince Edward, Duke of Kent, and Victoria of Saxe-Coburg and Saalfeld. The younger sons of George III were trying to secure the succession after Princess Charlotte, daughter of the future George IV died. She would become pregnant several times, but she would either miscarry, or the baby would die early. In 1830, after the death of George IV, Adelaide became Queen consort. She was well loved by the people for her kindness and generosity, and got along well with her niece and future Queen, Victoria. William died in 1837, and she would not follow until 1849, well into the reign of Victoria.

1382 – Eleanor of Aragon, Queen of Castile died giving birth to her third child, a daughter named for her, that died young as well. Eleanor was the daughter of Peter IV of Aragon and Eleanor of Sicily. In 1375, she married John I of Castile. They also had two sons, Henry who became king of Castile, and Ferdinand, who became King of Aragon. She was only 24 at her death.

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