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1385 – The Battle of Aljubarrota takes place between the forces of John I of Portugal and John I of Castile. The Portuguese were fighting for independence from Spain, and they one it with a decisive victory.

1415 – Prince Henry of Portugal, known as Henry the Navigator, fought for territory against the Kingdom of Morocco. The bad was a swift, decisive victory for the Portuguese, and they continued their expansion.

1479 – Catherine of York was born to King Edward IV and Elizabeth Woodville. She was their sixth daughter, and ninth child overall. The same year, her father tried to contract an advantageous marriage for her, betrothing her to John, Prince of the Asturias, heir of Ferdinand and Isabella of Spain, but nothing came of it. Later, after her sister Elizabeth became Queen consort with her marriage to Henry VII, Henry attempted to marry her to James III of Scotland, but to no avail. Finally in the 1490’s, she was married to William Courtenay, who later became the Earl of Devon. They would have three children, the eldest Henry, who was a courtier under his cousin, Henry VIII. Widowed at 31, she lived out her days in England, never marrying again, and outlived all her siblings.

1688 – Frederick William I of Prussia was born in Berlin, as the son of Frederick I and Sophia Charlotte of Hanover. He became King in Prussia in 1713, and was an active ruler in most aspects of government. His wife was Sophia Dorothea of Hanover, sister of George II of the United Kingdom. He kept Prussia out of war, except for one minor intervention in the Great Northern War, and left a sound economy. He did however, have a terrible relationship with his eldest son, the future Frederick II. The younger Frederick was even imprisoned, and there were rumors of his execution. Frederick William died in Berlin at age 51.

1727 – Twin girls are born at Versailles to King Louis XV and Queen Marie. They were Louise Elisabeth and Anne Henriette of France.The elder twin, Elisabeth, was married to Prince Phillip of Spain in 1739, to the chagrin of her sister, who was upset at the loss of her sister. Henriette would then pour herself into her music and become an accomplished musician. Elisabeth, despite having three children, was unhappy in Spain, and with her marriage. They were reunited at one point, but were of differing opinions on one of their father’s mistresses. In 1752, Henriette died of smallpox, while Elisabeth was living in Parma as its Duchess. She died in 1759 while visiting France, and the sisters are buried next to one another.

1876 – The future Alexander I of Serbia is born in Belgrade to King Milan I and Natalija Obrenovic. In 1889, his father suddenly abdicated, and Alexander became king under a regency until he was 16. He married in 1900, to a former lady in waiting to his mother, named Draga Masin. The match was wildly unpopular. In 1903, the couple were assassinated in their beds by a group of conspirators who didn’t want the king to name Draga’s brother as his successor. Alexander was only 26.

1040 – Duncan I of Scotland is killed in battle fighting fellow claimant to the throne, MacBeth. Duncan had been king since 1034, and was approximately 39 years old.

1433 – John I of Portugal died in Lisbon at age 75. He was the illegitimate son of Peter I of Portugal, and had become King in 1385, after the death of his half-brother Ferdinand I. In 1385, he married into the powerful English family of Lancaster, when he married Phillippa, daughter of John of Gaunt. He ended up being a successful ruler, and his son, Edward would succeed him.

Have a good one!