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1760 – The Battle of Liegnitz took place in Prussia between the forces of King Frederick the Great and the Austrians, being led by Ernst von Laudon. It would be a sound defeat for the Austrians, who lost almost 5000 soldiers in 30 minutes.

1171 – Alfonso IX of Leon is born to King Ferdinand II of Leon, and Urraca of Portugal. He became King in 1188, and ruled until 1230. He convened the Cortes of Leon, which is said to be the oldest form of Parliament in Europe. He had been excommunicated by the Pope for a time, because of his unsanctioned marriage to Berengaria of Castile. When he died, his son, Ferdinand succeeded him. Ferdinand was already King of Castile, through his mother’s claim, thus uniting the two regions of Spain.

1769 – Napoleone Buonaparte is born on the island of Corsica. Later, while serving in the military in France, he adopted the French spelling of his name, making it Napoleon Bonaparte. He would move up through the ranks in the military, then in 1799, Bonaparte was declared First Consul of France. Five years later, he was given the title ‘Emperor of the French’. Through the Napoleonic Wars of the early 19th century, he captured most of continental Europe, but after a failed invasion of Russia, things collapsed, with his eventual abdication and exile to the island of Elba. Napoleon escaped captivity on Elba, returned to France, and attempted to reclaim his throne, but he was thwarted again, and sent back to exile on the British controlled island of St. Helena, where he died in 1821.

1950 – Anne, Princess Royal of the United Kingdom was born today in 1950 to the future Queen Elizabeth II and Prince Phillip.

1038 – Stephen I of Hungary dies in Hungary. He had been Grand Prince of Hungary from 997 until about 1000, when he became the first king of Hungary. He was also a champion for the early Christian church in the nation, and was later sainted. He would unify Hungary also under his banner, and is still considered a national hero.

1057 – MacBeth, King of Scotland died in battle. He had been King of Alba since 1040, after the death of Duncan I. He was involved in the strife in England, between Godwin, Earl of Essex, and Edward the Confessor. In contrary to the Shakespearean play, he was a good and just ruler.

1369 – Philippa of Hainault died at age 55 in London. She was born in Valenciennes to the Count and Countess of Hainault, Holland, and Zeeland. Her betrothal to the future Edward III of England was at first to gain her father’s support in Isabella, Edward’s mother’s, invasion of England. But Edward and Philippa did love each other and were said to be quite devoted. Edward trusted her enough to leave her as regent during his trips abroad and she would accompany him on some. They would have fourteen children. Philippa was well loved and admired by the people of England for her piety, charity, and compassion.

Have an awesome day!