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1513 – The Battle of Guinegate takes place in France between the French and the English forces led by King Henry VIII. The French were caught off-guard, and England would win the day. However, it was joked that when the French sounded the retreat, all the English could see was glare from their spurs, leading to the English calling it, “The Battle of the Spurs.”

1858 – Queen Victoria of Great Britain and American President James Buchanan communicate through the first transatlantic telegraph cable, in its first communication.

1859 – The National Assembly of Tuscany formally deposes the House of Hapsburg-Lorraine from its standing as Grand Dukes of Tuscany.

1573 – Anne of Austria was born to Charles II, Archduke of Austria and Anne of Bohemia. She was a granddaughter to Holy Roman Emperor Ferdinand I and a member of the mighty Habsburg family. In 1592, she married Sigismund III Vasa, King of Poland and Sweden. She didn’t spend much time in Sweden, as she believed them to be heretics, but she agreed to respect their beliefs in exchange for properties. Between 1593 and 1598, she had five children, but only one lived to adult hood as Vladislaus IV Vasa of Poland. Her last pregnancy would claim her life. Anne was only 24 years old. Later, her husband married her sister, Constance.

1682 – Louis de France, Duke of Burgundy is born at Versailles to Louis, the Dauphin. Versailles was the court of his grandfather, Louis XIV. As he grew up, he was known as the Petit Dauphin, and his father the Grand Dauphin, until 1711, when the Grand Dauphin died. When he was twenty, he began to take a role in politics and was a part of his grandfathers council. At age 15, he had married Marie-Adelaide of Savoy, by which he had two children. However, sadly, in 1712, both he and his wife died from the measles, leaving their only son, the future Louis XV, an orphan.

1419 – Wenceslaus IV of Bohemia died in Prague. He had been King of Germany since 1376, and King of Bohemia since 1378. He spent most of his time in Bohemia, and because of his lack of time in Germany, he was deposed as King in 1400, but remained King of Bohemia. He had married twice, but no children.

1445 – Margaret Stewart, Dauphine of France died of a fever at approximately age 20. She was the eldest child of James I, and the sister of the future James II. When she was about 11 years old, she was sent to France to marry the Dauphin, the future Louis IX. The marriage was a political alliance, and they would have no children. She was popular at court for her grace and beauty.

1921 – King Peter I of Serbia died at age 77. Born in 1844 he became King of Serbia in 1903, and attempted to make Serbia like other modern constitutional monarchies. He became very popular for his leadership during the Balkan Wars, and despite being somewhat inactive during World War I, he still visited the front lines. During the war, his health began to fail, so his son, Prince Alexander, took on most of his duties. In 1918, the Kingdom of Serbia became the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes. Even after his death, he remained popular as a hero and father of the Serbian and Yugoslavian nations.