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1561 – Mary, Queen of Scots lands back in Scotland after living in France since childhood. She had been widowed earlier in the year by Francis II of France.

1745 – Charles Edward Stuart, or “Bonnie Prince Charlie” raises his standard in Glenfinnan, Scotland. This is considered the start of the second Jacobite Rebellion to restore the Catholic Stuarts to the thrones of Great Britain instead of the Protestant Hanovers.

1772 – Swedish king Gustav III enacts a new constitution in a coup d’état that takes power from the Riksdag and gives to the King.

1342 – Catherine of Bohemia is born in Prague to Holy Roman Emperor Charles IV and Blanche of Valois. In 1356, she entered into a political marriage to the Duke of Austria, Rudolf IV. He left her a widow after a nine year childless marriage. The following year, she was married to Otto V, Duke of Bavaria, and was later caught in territorial disputes when her father invaded her husbands Brandenburg lands. She died in Austria in 1395.

1596 – Elizabeth Stuart is born in Scotland to King James VI and Anne of Denmark. She stayed in Scotland for a while after her father became King of England as well, and actually during the Gunpowder Plot, it was said that she was to be set up as an alternative Catholic monarch to her fathers and brothers. In 1613, she was married to Frederick V, Count Palatine of the Rhine. Three years later, Frederick was elected to be King of Bohemia, only to be overthrown a few months later, earning Elizabeth the nickname, “The Winter Queen.” In 1621, she ended up in The Hague, where she would be widowed in 1632. Elizabeth continued to try and parent her remaining children as possible. Her youngest daughter, Sophia, would be the mother of the future George I of Great Britain. In 1661, she returned to Britain, living out her days in the court of her nephew, Charles II.

1186 – Geoffrey, Duke of Brittany died at age 27 in Paris. There are two accounts of his death, one saying he was trampled to death in a tournament, the other saying he died after a sudden illness. Geoffrey was the son of Henry II of England, and Eleanor of Aquitaine. He had participated in his brother Henry’s rebellion against their father, and had been close to Phillip II of France. His son and heir, Arthur, would later come into conflict with Geoffrey’s younger brother, John.

1493 – Holy Roman Emperor Frederick III died in Austria at age 77. A son of the Habsburg family, he was born in 1415. He became Archduke of Austria in 1424, King of Germany and the Romans in 1440, and finally Holy Roman Emperor in 1452. He was the first Habsburg Emperor, and the last Emperor to be crowned in Rome. For the last ten years, his son, Maximilian I, ruled jointly with him as co-ruler.